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Bitcoin Address Lookup – Get Info On Any Bitcoin Wallet Address

Bitcoin Address Lookup – Get Info On Any Bitcoin Wallet Address submitted by Rufflenator to 3bitcoins [link] [comments]

Bitcoin Address Lookup – Get Info On Any Bitcoin Wallet Address

Bitcoin Address Lookup – Get Info On Any Bitcoin Wallet Address submitted by ososru to Bitcoin4free [link] [comments]

Friend got BTC/Link stolen on ledger wallet purchased on Amazon

Ledger Nano S device purchased on Amazon in July, says sold by Ledger, it came with a sheet saying default pin is 5555 and with a recovery phrase printed on 2 sheets of card (looks like an inkjet print). Funds transferred 2nd October, funds stolen 9th October, can see etherscan of wallet moved to which is still there.
What to do? Does he contact the police? Amazon? Ledger? This is unbelievable!
—— Updates: ——
Says sold by Ledger, seller address showing as
Business Name:Ledger Business Type:Privately-owned business Trade Register Number:Paris B 529 991 119 VAT Number:GB285127296 Customer Services Address: 1 rue du Mail Paris 75002 FR Business Address: 1 rue du Mail Paris 75002 FR
Amazon Listing:
Ledger Nano S - The Best Crypto Hardware Wallet - Secure and Manage Your Bitcoin, Ethereum, ERC20 and Many Other Coins https://www.amazon.co.uk/dp/B07FY5R77T/ref=cm_sw_r_cp_api_i_PpFJFb7K2ZH9J
More details:
Used the GB VAT number to reverse lookup the address:
Member State GB VAT Number GB 285127296 Date when request received 2020/10/19 22:08:07 Name LEDGER Address C/O 4 EYES LTD BAY HOUSE, COCKS HILL PERRANPORTH CORNWALL TR6 0AT
LTD company registered address: Registered office address 4 EYES LTD 110 Lancaster Road, Barnet, Hertfordshire, EN4 8AL
This looks like their accountants company name
submitted by switchitoffbros to ledgerwallet [link] [comments]

Getting started as a bitcoin cash merchant

So I've spent some time looking into various APIs and services, trying to get a basic merchant setup working usable for development, with a working testnet. The quality of the services offered and documentation is lacking, to say the least.
So I've taken a step back and decided I would try to get this working from "first principles", basically setting up a node and using the related APIs. I first tried the BCHD node which was looking promising, until the testnet version of it got into a loop where it kept complaining about some invalid transactions over and over and never seemed to recover.
The I tried "Bitcoin Cash Node", which is an awful name for search engines btw. It could really need a more unique and searchable name. After some struggle and careful reading of startup options and configuration files, I managed to get nodes up an running (testnet and mainnet) and in such a state that they answer to REST and JSONRPC calls.
I have transferred some bitcoin on testnet to a know address, using a public "faucet" that works (also a bit hard to find). I know that I managed to get that part working, as I've successfully looked up the balance of that address using a few of the public blockchain lookup tools.
What I havent' quite figured out is how to look up that address on my locally running node. Most of the API deals with transactions, not addresses. There aren't many APIs that accept addresses. scantxoutset might work, but it uses terms as "scan", which indicates it's not a "low cost" operation (which I would expect).
So I'm wondering, does this really mean that most bitcoin nodes really isn't usable for looking up addresses?? Or to turn it around, can anybody recommend bitcoin cash nodes that offers an easy to use API for looking up payment related things, like addresses?
Final note, I know how wallets etc work. The reason I'm trying to implement similar functionality from scratch is to understand all the details. And because a merchant typically can't just accept the current limited functionality with wallets, which seems focused on a single user's need, not what a merchant would need (gap issue etc).
And fwiw, I've also tested the "bitbox" API (which does not have a working testnet) and "fullstack" API (which has a working testnet, although documentation isn't complete). So I know about other ways of doing similar stuff. I'm just trying to minimize the number of external things I need to depend on while also figuring out how this can be done straight from running nodes.
submitted by kjeldahl to btc [link] [comments]

Why i’m bullish on Zilliqa (long read)

Edit: TL;DR added in the comments
 
Hey all, I've been researching coins since 2017 and have gone through 100s of them in the last 3 years. I got introduced to blockchain via Bitcoin of course, analyzed Ethereum thereafter and from that moment I have a keen interest in smart contact platforms. I’m passionate about Ethereum but I find Zilliqa to have a better risk-reward ratio. Especially because Zilliqa has found an elegant balance between being secure, decentralized and scalable in my opinion.
 
Below I post my analysis of why from all the coins I went through I’m most bullish on Zilliqa (yes I went through Tezos, EOS, NEO, VeChain, Harmony, Algorand, Cardano etc.). Note that this is not investment advice and although it's a thorough analysis there is obviously some bias involved. Looking forward to what you all think!
 
Fun fact: the name Zilliqa is a play on ‘silica’ silicon dioxide which means “Silicon for the high-throughput consensus computer.”
 
This post is divided into (i) Technology, (ii) Business & Partnerships, and (iii) Marketing & Community. I’ve tried to make the technology part readable for a broad audience. If you’ve ever tried understanding the inner workings of Bitcoin and Ethereum you should be able to grasp most parts. Otherwise, just skim through and once you are zoning out head to the next part.
 
Technology and some more:
 
Introduction
 
The technology is one of the main reasons why I’m so bullish on Zilliqa. First thing you see on their website is: “Zilliqa is a high-performance, high-security blockchain platform for enterprises and next-generation applications.” These are some bold statements.
 
Before we deep dive into the technology let’s take a step back in time first as they have quite the history. The initial research paper from which Zilliqa originated dates back to August 2016: Elastico: A Secure Sharding Protocol For Open Blockchains where Loi Luu (Kyber Network) is one of the co-authors. Other ideas that led to the development of what Zilliqa has become today are: Bitcoin-NG, collective signing CoSi, ByzCoin and Omniledger.
 
The technical white paper was made public in August 2017 and since then they have achieved everything stated in the white paper and also created their own open source intermediate level smart contract language called Scilla (functional programming language similar to OCaml) too.
 
Mainnet is live since the end of January 2019 with daily transaction rates growing continuously. About a week ago mainnet reached 5 million transactions, 500.000+ addresses in total along with 2400 nodes keeping the network decentralized and secure. Circulating supply is nearing 11 billion and currently only mining rewards are left. The maximum supply is 21 billion with annual inflation being 7.13% currently and will only decrease with time.
 
Zilliqa realized early on that the usage of public cryptocurrencies and smart contracts were increasing but decentralized, secure, and scalable alternatives were lacking in the crypto space. They proposed to apply sharding onto a public smart contract blockchain where the transaction rate increases almost linear with the increase in the amount of nodes. More nodes = higher transaction throughput and increased decentralization. Sharding comes in many forms and Zilliqa uses network-, transaction- and computational sharding. Network sharding opens up the possibility of using transaction- and computational sharding on top. Zilliqa does not use state sharding for now. We’ll come back to this later.
 
Before we continue dissecting how Zilliqa achieves such from a technological standpoint it’s good to keep in mind that a blockchain being decentralised and secure and scalable is still one of the main hurdles in allowing widespread usage of decentralised networks. In my opinion this needs to be solved first before blockchains can get to the point where they can create and add large scale value. So I invite you to read the next section to grasp the underlying fundamentals. Because after all these premises need to be true otherwise there isn’t a fundamental case to be bullish on Zilliqa, right?
 
Down the rabbit hole
 
How have they achieved this? Let’s define the basics first: key players on Zilliqa are the users and the miners. A user is anybody who uses the blockchain to transfer funds or run smart contracts. Miners are the (shard) nodes in the network who run the consensus protocol and get rewarded for their service in Zillings (ZIL). The mining network is divided into several smaller networks called shards, which is also referred to as ‘network sharding’. Miners subsequently are randomly assigned to a shard by another set of miners called DS (Directory Service) nodes. The regular shards process transactions and the outputs of these shards are eventually combined by the DS shard as they reach consensus on the final state. More on how these DS shards reach consensus (via pBFT) will be explained later on.
 
The Zilliqa network produces two types of blocks: DS blocks and Tx blocks. One DS Block consists of 100 Tx Blocks. And as previously mentioned there are two types of nodes concerned with reaching consensus: shard nodes and DS nodes. Becoming a shard node or DS node is being defined by the result of a PoW cycle (Ethash) at the beginning of the DS Block. All candidate mining nodes compete with each other and run the PoW (Proof-of-Work) cycle for 60 seconds and the submissions achieving the highest difficulty will be allowed on the network. And to put it in perspective: the average difficulty for one DS node is ~ 2 Th/s equaling 2.000.000 Mh/s or 55 thousand+ GeForce GTX 1070 / 8 GB GPUs at 35.4 Mh/s. Each DS Block 10 new DS nodes are allowed. And a shard node needs to provide around 8.53 GH/s currently (around 240 GTX 1070s). Dual mining ETH/ETC and ZIL is possible and can be done via mining software such as Phoenix and Claymore. There are pools and if you have large amounts of hashing power (Ethash) available you could mine solo.
 
The PoW cycle of 60 seconds is a peak performance and acts as an entry ticket to the network. The entry ticket is called a sybil resistance mechanism and makes it incredibly hard for adversaries to spawn lots of identities and manipulate the network with these identities. And after every 100 Tx Blocks which corresponds to roughly 1,5 hour this PoW process repeats. In between these 1,5 hour, no PoW needs to be done meaning Zilliqa’s energy consumption to keep the network secure is low. For more detailed information on how mining works click here.
Okay, hats off to you. You have made it this far. Before we go any deeper down the rabbit hole we first must understand why Zilliqa goes through all of the above technicalities and understand a bit more what a blockchain on a more fundamental level is. Because the core of Zilliqa’s consensus protocol relies on the usage of pBFT (practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance) we need to know more about state machines and their function. Navigate to Viewblock, a Zilliqa block explorer, and just come back to this article. We will use this site to navigate through a few concepts.
 
We have established that Zilliqa is a public and distributed blockchain. Meaning that everyone with an internet connection can send ZILs, trigger smart contracts, etc. and there is no central authority who fully controls the network. Zilliqa and other public and distributed blockchains (like Bitcoin and Ethereum) can also be defined as state machines.
 
Taking the liberty of paraphrasing examples and definitions given by Samuel Brooks’ medium article, he describes the definition of a blockchain (like Zilliqa) as: “A peer-to-peer, append-only datastore that uses consensus to synchronize cryptographically-secure data”.
 
Next, he states that: "blockchains are fundamentally systems for managing valid state transitions”. For some more context, I recommend reading the whole medium article to get a better grasp of the definitions and understanding of state machines. Nevertheless, let’s try to simplify and compile it into a single paragraph. Take traffic lights as an example: all its states (red, amber, and green) are predefined, all possible outcomes are known and it doesn’t matter if you encounter the traffic light today or tomorrow. It will still behave the same. Managing the states of a traffic light can be done by triggering a sensor on the road or pushing a button resulting in one traffic lights’ state going from green to red (via amber) and another light from red to green.
 
With public blockchains like Zilliqa, this isn’t so straightforward and simple. It started with block #1 almost 1,5 years ago and every 45 seconds or so a new block linked to the previous block is being added. Resulting in a chain of blocks with transactions in it that everyone can verify from block #1 to the current #647.000+ block. The state is ever changing and the states it can find itself in are infinite. And while the traffic light might work together in tandem with various other traffic lights, it’s rather insignificant comparing it to a public blockchain. Because Zilliqa consists of 2400 nodes who need to work together to achieve consensus on what the latest valid state is while some of these nodes may have latency or broadcast issues, drop offline or are deliberately trying to attack the network, etc.
 
Now go back to the Viewblock page take a look at the amount of transaction, addresses, block and DS height and then hit refresh. Obviously as expected you see new incremented values on one or all parameters. And how did the Zilliqa blockchain manage to transition from a previous valid state to the latest valid state? By using pBFT to reach consensus on the latest valid state.
 
After having obtained the entry ticket, miners execute pBFT to reach consensus on the ever-changing state of the blockchain. pBFT requires a series of network communication between nodes, and as such there is no GPU involved (but CPU). Resulting in the total energy consumed to keep the blockchain secure, decentralized and scalable being low.
 
pBFT stands for practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance and is an optimization on the Byzantine Fault Tolerant algorithm. To quote Blockonomi: “In the context of distributed systems, Byzantine Fault Tolerance is the ability of a distributed computer network to function as desired and correctly reach a sufficient consensus despite malicious components (nodes) of the system failing or propagating incorrect information to other peers.” Zilliqa is such a distributed computer network and depends on the honesty of the nodes (shard and DS) to reach consensus and to continuously update the state with the latest block. If pBFT is a new term for you I can highly recommend the Blockonomi article.
 
The idea of pBFT was introduced in 1999 - one of the authors even won a Turing award for it - and it is well researched and applied in various blockchains and distributed systems nowadays. If you want more advanced information than the Blockonomi link provides click here. And if you’re in between Blockonomi and the University of Singapore read the Zilliqa Design Story Part 2 dating from October 2017.
Quoting from the Zilliqa tech whitepaper: “pBFT relies upon a correct leader (which is randomly selected) to begin each phase and proceed when the sufficient majority exists. In case the leader is byzantine it can stall the entire consensus protocol. To address this challenge, pBFT offers a view change protocol to replace the byzantine leader with another one.”
 
pBFT can tolerate ⅓ of the nodes being dishonest (offline counts as Byzantine = dishonest) and the consensus protocol will function without stalling or hiccups. Once there are more than ⅓ of dishonest nodes but no more than ⅔ the network will be stalled and a view change will be triggered to elect a new DS leader. Only when more than ⅔ of the nodes are dishonest (66%) double-spend attacks become possible.
 
If the network stalls no transactions can be processed and one has to wait until a new honest leader has been elected. When the mainnet was just launched and in its early phases, view changes happened regularly. As of today the last stalling of the network - and view change being triggered - was at the end of October 2019.
 
Another benefit of using pBFT for consensus besides low energy is the immediate finality it provides. Once your transaction is included in a block and the block is added to the chain it’s done. Lastly, take a look at this article where three types of finality are being defined: probabilistic, absolute and economic finality. Zilliqa falls under the absolute finality (just like Tendermint for example). Although lengthy already we skipped through some of the inner workings from Zilliqa’s consensus: read the Zilliqa Design Story Part 3 and you will be close to having a complete picture on it. Enough about PoW, sybil resistance mechanism, pBFT, etc. Another thing we haven’t looked at yet is the amount of decentralization.
 
Decentralisation
 
Currently, there are four shards, each one of them consisting of 600 nodes. 1 shard with 600 so-called DS nodes (Directory Service - they need to achieve a higher difficulty than shard nodes) and 1800 shard nodes of which 250 are shard guards (centralized nodes controlled by the team). The amount of shard guards has been steadily declining from 1200 in January 2019 to 250 as of May 2020. On the Viewblock statistics, you can see that many of the nodes are being located in the US but those are only the (CPU parts of the) shard nodes who perform pBFT. There is no data from where the PoW sources are coming. And when the Zilliqa blockchain starts reaching its transaction capacity limit, a network upgrade needs to be executed to lift the current cap of maximum 2400 nodes to allow more nodes and formation of more shards which will allow to network to keep on scaling according to demand.
Besides shard nodes there are also seed nodes. The main role of seed nodes is to serve as direct access points (for end-users and clients) to the core Zilliqa network that validates transactions. Seed nodes consolidate transaction requests and forward these to the lookup nodes (another type of nodes) for distribution to the shards in the network. Seed nodes also maintain the entire transaction history and the global state of the blockchain which is needed to provide services such as block explorers. Seed nodes in the Zilliqa network are comparable to Infura on Ethereum.
 
The seed nodes were first only operated by Zilliqa themselves, exchanges and Viewblock. Operators of seed nodes like exchanges had no incentive to open them for the greater public. They were centralised at first. Decentralisation at the seed nodes level has been steadily rolled out since March 2020 ( Zilliqa Improvement Proposal 3 ). Currently the amount of seed nodes is being increased, they are public-facing and at the same time PoS is applied to incentivize seed node operators and make it possible for ZIL holders to stake and earn passive yields. Important distinction: seed nodes are not involved with consensus! That is still PoW as entry ticket and pBFT for the actual consensus.
 
5% of the block rewards are being assigned to seed nodes (from the beginning in 2019) and those are being used to pay out ZIL stakers. The 5% block rewards with an annual yield of 10.03% translate to roughly 610 MM ZILs in total that can be staked. Exchanges use the custodial variant of staking and wallets like Moonlet will use the non-custodial version (starting in Q3 2020). Staking is being done by sending ZILs to a smart contract created by Zilliqa and audited by Quantstamp.
 
With a high amount of DS; shard nodes and seed nodes becoming more decentralized too, Zilliqa qualifies for the label of decentralized in my opinion.
 
Smart contracts
 
Let me start by saying I’m not a developer and my programming skills are quite limited. So I‘m taking the ELI5 route (maybe 12) but if you are familiar with Javascript, Solidity or specifically OCaml please head straight to Scilla - read the docs to get a good initial grasp of how Zilliqa’s smart contract language Scilla works and if you ask yourself “why another programming language?” check this article. And if you want to play around with some sample contracts in an IDE click here. The faucet can be found here. And more information on architecture, dapp development and API can be found on the Developer Portal.
If you are more into listening and watching: check this recent webinar explaining Zilliqa and Scilla. Link is time-stamped so you’ll start right away with a platform introduction, roadmap 2020 and afterwards a proper Scilla introduction.
 
Generalized: programming languages can be divided into being ‘object-oriented’ or ‘functional’. Here is an ELI5 given by software development academy: * “all programs have two basic components, data – what the program knows – and behavior – what the program can do with that data. So object-oriented programming states that combining data and related behaviors in one place, is called “object”, which makes it easier to understand how a particular program works. On the other hand, functional programming argues that data and behavior are different things and should be separated to ensure their clarity.” *
 
Scilla is on the functional side and shares similarities with OCaml: OCaml is a general-purpose programming language with an emphasis on expressiveness and safety. It has an advanced type system that helps catch your mistakes without getting in your way. It's used in environments where a single mistake can cost millions and speed matters, is supported by an active community, and has a rich set of libraries and development tools. For all its power, OCaml is also pretty simple, which is one reason it's often used as a teaching language.
 
Scilla is blockchain agnostic, can be implemented onto other blockchains as well, is recognized by academics and won a so-called Distinguished Artifact Award award at the end of last year.
 
One of the reasons why the Zilliqa team decided to create their own programming language focused on preventing smart contract vulnerabilities is that adding logic on a blockchain, programming, means that you cannot afford to make mistakes. Otherwise, it could cost you. It’s all great and fun blockchains being immutable but updating your code because you found a bug isn’t the same as with a regular web application for example. And with smart contracts, it inherently involves cryptocurrencies in some form thus value.
 
Another difference with programming languages on a blockchain is gas. Every transaction you do on a smart contract platform like Zilliqa or Ethereum costs gas. With gas you basically pay for computational costs. Sending a ZIL from address A to address B costs 0.001 ZIL currently. Smart contracts are more complex, often involve various functions and require more gas (if gas is a new concept click here ).
 
So with Scilla, similar to Solidity, you need to make sure that “every function in your smart contract will run as expected without hitting gas limits. An improper resource analysis may lead to situations where funds may get stuck simply because a part of the smart contract code cannot be executed due to gas limits. Such constraints are not present in traditional software systems”. Scilla design story part 1
 
Some examples of smart contract issues you’d want to avoid are: leaking funds, ‘unexpected changes to critical state variables’ (example: someone other than you setting his or her address as the owner of the smart contract after creation) or simply killing a contract.
 
Scilla also allows for formal verification. Wikipedia to the rescue: In the context of hardware and software systems, formal verification is the act of proving or disproving the correctness of intended algorithms underlying a system with respect to a certain formal specification or property, using formal methods of mathematics.
 
Formal verification can be helpful in proving the correctness of systems such as: cryptographic protocols, combinational circuits, digital circuits with internal memory, and software expressed as source code.
 
Scilla is being developed hand-in-hand with formalization of its semantics and its embedding into the Coq proof assistant — a state-of-the art tool for mechanized proofs about properties of programs.”
 
Simply put, with Scilla and accompanying tooling developers can be mathematically sure and proof that the smart contract they’ve written does what he or she intends it to do.
 
Smart contract on a sharded environment and state sharding
 
There is one more topic I’d like to touch on: smart contract execution in a sharded environment (and what is the effect of state sharding). This is a complex topic. I’m not able to explain it any easier than what is posted here. But I will try to compress the post into something easy to digest.
 
Earlier on we have established that Zilliqa can process transactions in parallel due to network sharding. This is where the linear scalability comes from. We can define simple transactions: a transaction from address A to B (Category 1), a transaction where a user interacts with one smart contract (Category 2) and the most complex ones where triggering a transaction results in multiple smart contracts being involved (Category 3). The shards are able to process transactions on their own without interference of the other shards. With Category 1 transactions that is doable, with Category 2 transactions sometimes if that address is in the same shard as the smart contract but with Category 3 you definitely need communication between the shards. Solving that requires to make a set of communication rules the protocol needs to follow in order to process all transactions in a generalised fashion.
 
And this is where the downsides of state sharding comes in currently. All shards in Zilliqa have access to the complete state. Yes the state size (0.1 GB at the moment) grows and all of the nodes need to store it but it also means that they don’t need to shop around for information available on other shards. Requiring more communication and adding more complexity. Computer science knowledge and/or developer knowledge required links if you want to dig further: Scilla - language grammar Scilla - Foundations for Verifiable Decentralised Computations on a Blockchain Gas Accounting NUS x Zilliqa: Smart contract language workshop
 
Easier to follow links on programming Scilla https://learnscilla.com/home Ivan on Tech
 
Roadmap / Zilliqa 2.0
 
There is no strict defined roadmap but here are topics being worked on. And via the Zilliqa website there is also more information on the projects they are working on.
 
Business & Partnerships
 
It’s not only technology in which Zilliqa seems to be excelling as their ecosystem has been expanding and starting to grow rapidly. The project is on a mission to provide OpenFinance (OpFi) to the world and Singapore is the right place to be due to its progressive regulations and futuristic thinking. Singapore has taken a proactive approach towards cryptocurrencies by introducing the Payment Services Act 2019 (PS Act). Among other things, the PS Act will regulate intermediaries dealing with certain cryptocurrencies, with a particular focus on consumer protection and anti-money laundering. It will also provide a stable regulatory licensing and operating framework for cryptocurrency entities, effectively covering all crypto businesses and exchanges based in Singapore. According to PWC 82% of the surveyed executives in Singapore reported blockchain initiatives underway and 13% of them have already brought the initiatives live to the market. There is also an increasing list of organizations that are starting to provide digital payment services. Moreover, Singaporean blockchain developers Building Cities Beyond has recently created an innovation $15 million grant to encourage development on its ecosystem. This all suggests that Singapore tries to position itself as (one of) the leading blockchain hubs in the world.
 
Zilliqa seems to already take advantage of this and recently helped launch Hg Exchange on their platform, together with financial institutions PhillipCapital, PrimePartners and Fundnel. Hg Exchange, which is now approved by the Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS), uses smart contracts to represent digital assets. Through Hg Exchange financial institutions worldwide can use Zilliqa's safe-by-design smart contracts to enable the trading of private equities. For example, think of companies such as Grab, Airbnb, SpaceX that are not available for public trading right now. Hg Exchange will allow investors to buy shares of private companies & unicorns and capture their value before an IPO. Anquan, the main company behind Zilliqa, has also recently announced that they became a partner and shareholder in TEN31 Bank, which is a fully regulated bank allowing for tokenization of assets and is aiming to bridge the gap between conventional banking and the blockchain world. If STOs, the tokenization of assets, and equity trading will continue to increase, then Zilliqa’s public blockchain would be the ideal candidate due to its strategic positioning, partnerships, regulatory compliance and the technology that is being built on top of it.
 
What is also very encouraging is their focus on banking the un(der)banked. They are launching a stablecoin basket starting with XSGD. As many of you know, stablecoins are currently mostly used for trading. However, Zilliqa is actively trying to broaden the use case of stablecoins. I recommend everybody to read this text that Amrit Kumar wrote (one of the co-founders). These stablecoins will be integrated in the traditional markets and bridge the gap between the crypto world and the traditional world. This could potentially revolutionize and legitimise the crypto space if retailers and companies will for example start to use stablecoins for payments or remittances, instead of it solely being used for trading.
 
Zilliqa also released their DeFi strategic roadmap (dating November 2019) which seems to be aligning well with their OpFi strategy. A non-custodial DEX is coming to Zilliqa made by Switcheo which allows cross-chain trading (atomic swaps) between ETH, EOS and ZIL based tokens. They also signed a Memorandum of Understanding for a (soon to be announced) USD stablecoin. And as Zilliqa is all about regulations and being compliant, I’m speculating on it to be a regulated USD stablecoin. Furthermore, XSGD is already created and visible on block explorer and XIDR (Indonesian Stablecoin) is also coming soon via StraitsX. Here also an overview of the Tech Stack for Financial Applications from September 2019. Further quoting Amrit Kumar on this:
 
There are two basic building blocks in DeFi/OpFi though: 1) stablecoins as you need a non-volatile currency to get access to this market and 2) a dex to be able to trade all these financial assets. The rest are built on top of these blocks.
 
So far, together with our partners and community, we have worked on developing these building blocks with XSGD as a stablecoin. We are working on bringing a USD-backed stablecoin as well. We will soon have a decentralised exchange developed by Switcheo. And with HGX going live, we are also venturing into the tokenization space. More to come in the future.”
 
Additionally, they also have this ZILHive initiative that injects capital into projects. There have been already 6 waves of various teams working on infrastructure, innovation and research, and they are not from ASEAN or Singapore only but global: see Grantees breakdown by country. Over 60 project teams from over 20 countries have contributed to Zilliqa's ecosystem. This includes individuals and teams developing wallets, explorers, developer toolkits, smart contract testing frameworks, dapps, etc. As some of you may know, Unstoppable Domains (UD) blew up when they launched on Zilliqa. UD aims to replace cryptocurrency addresses with a human-readable name and allows for uncensorable websites. Zilliqa will probably be the only one able to handle all these transactions onchain due to ability to scale and its resulting low fees which is why the UD team launched this on Zilliqa in the first place. Furthermore, Zilliqa also has a strong emphasis on security, compliance, and privacy, which is why they partnered with companies like Elliptic, ChainSecurity (part of PwC Switzerland), and Incognito. Their sister company Aqilliz (Zilliqa spelled backwards) focuses on revolutionizing the digital advertising space and is doing interesting things like using Zilliqa to track outdoor digital ads with companies like Foodpanda.
 
Zilliqa is listed on nearly all major exchanges, having several different fiat-gateways and recently have been added to Binance’s margin trading and futures trading with really good volume. They also have a very impressive team with good credentials and experience. They don't just have “tech people”. They have a mix of tech people, business people, marketeers, scientists, and more. Naturally, it's good to have a mix of people with different skill sets if you work in the crypto space.
 
Marketing & Community
 
Zilliqa has a very strong community. If you just follow their Twitter their engagement is much higher for a coin that has approximately 80k followers. They also have been ‘coin of the day’ by LunarCrush many times. LunarCrush tracks real-time cryptocurrency value and social data. According to their data, it seems Zilliqa has a more fundamental and deeper understanding of marketing and community engagement than almost all other coins. While almost all coins have been a bit frozen in the last months, Zilliqa seems to be on its own bull run. It was somewhere in the 100s a few months ago and is currently ranked #46 on CoinGecko. Their official Telegram also has over 20k people and is very active, and their community channel which is over 7k now is more active and larger than many other official channels. Their local communities also seem to be growing.
 
Moreover, their community started ‘Zillacracy’ together with the Zilliqa core team ( see www.zillacracy.com ). It’s a community-run initiative where people from all over the world are now helping with marketing and development on Zilliqa. Since its launch in February 2020 they have been doing a lot and will also run their own non-custodial seed node for staking. This seed node will also allow them to start generating revenue for them to become a self sustaining entity that could potentially scale up to become a decentralized company working in parallel with the Zilliqa core team. Comparing it to all the other smart contract platforms (e.g. Cardano, EOS, Tezos etc.) they don't seem to have started a similar initiative (correct me if I’m wrong though). This suggests in my opinion that these other smart contract platforms do not fully understand how to utilize the ‘power of the community’. This is something you cannot ‘buy with money’ and gives many projects in the space a disadvantage.
 
Zilliqa also released two social products called SocialPay and Zeeves. SocialPay allows users to earn ZILs while tweeting with a specific hashtag. They have recently used it in partnership with the Singapore Red Cross for a marketing campaign after their initial pilot program. It seems like a very valuable social product with a good use case. I can see a lot of traditional companies entering the space through this product, which they seem to suggest will happen. Tokenizing hashtags with smart contracts to get network effect is a very smart and innovative idea.
 
Regarding Zeeves, this is a tipping bot for Telegram. They already have 1000s of signups and they plan to keep upgrading it for more and more people to use it (e.g. they recently have added a quiz features). They also use it during AMAs to reward people in real-time. It’s a very smart approach to grow their communities and get familiar with ZIL. I can see this becoming very big on Telegram. This tool suggests, again, that the Zilliqa team has a deeper understanding of what the crypto space and community needs and is good at finding the right innovative tools to grow and scale.
 
To be honest, I haven’t covered everything (i’m also reaching the character limited haha). So many updates happening lately that it's hard to keep up, such as the International Monetary Fund mentioning Zilliqa in their report, custodial and non-custodial Staking, Binance Margin, Futures, Widget, entering the Indian market, and more. The Head of Marketing Colin Miles has also released this as an overview of what is coming next. And last but not least, Vitalik Buterin has been mentioning Zilliqa lately acknowledging Zilliqa and mentioning that both projects have a lot of room to grow. There is much more info of course and a good part of it has been served to you on a silver platter. I invite you to continue researching by yourself :-) And if you have any comments or questions please post here!
submitted by haveyouheardaboutit to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

[FULL ANALYSIS] Bitcoin exchanges and payment processors in Canada are now regulated as Money Service Businesses

Hello Bitcoiners!
Many of you saw my tweet yesterday about the Bitcoin regulations in Canada. As usual, some journalists decided to write articles about my tweets without asking me for the full context :P Which means there has been a lot of misunderstanding. Particuarly, these regulations mean that we can lower the KYC requirements and no longer require ID documents or bank account connections! We can also increase the daily transaction limit from $3,000 per day to $10,000 per day for unverified accounts. The main difference is that we now have a $1,000 per-transaction limit (instead of per day) and we must report suspicious transactions. It's important to read about our reporting requirements, as it is the main difference since pretty much every exchange was doing KYC anyway.
Hopefully you appreciate the transparency, and I'm available for questions!
Cheers,
Francis
*********************************************
Text below is copied from: https://medium.com/bull-bitcoin/bitcoin-exchanges-and-payment-processors-in-canada-are-now-regulated-as-money-service-businesses-1ca820575511

Bitcoin is money, regulated like money

Notice to Canadian Bitcoin users

If you are the user of a Canadian Bitcoin company, be assured that:
You may notice that the exchange service you are using has change its transactions limits or is now requiring more information from you.
You can stop reading this email now without any consequence! Otherwise, keep regarding if you are interested in my unique insights into this important topic!

Background on regulation

Today marks an important chapter for Bitcoin’s history in Canada: Bitcoin is officially regulated as money (virtual currency) under the Proceeds of Crime (Money Laundering) and Terrorist Financing Act of Canada (PCMLTFA), under the jurisdiction of the Financial Transaction and Reports Analysis Centre of Canada (FINTRAC).
This is the culmination of 5 years of effort by numerous Bitcoin Canadian advocates collaborating with the Ministry of Finance, Fintrac and other Canadian government agencies.
It is important to note that there is no new Bitcoin law in Canada. In June of 2014, the Governor General of Canada (representing Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II) gave royal asset to Bill C-31, voted by parliament under Stephen Harper’s Conservative government, which included amendments to the PCMLTFA to included Bitcoin companies (named “dealers in virtual currency”) as a category of Money Service Businesses.
Thereafter, FINTRAC engaged in the process of defining what exactly is meant by “dealing in virtual currency” and what particular rules would apply to the businesses in this category. Much of our work was centred around excluding things like non-custodial wallets, nodes, mining and other activities that were not related exchange or payments processing.
To give an idea, the other categories that apply to traditional fiat currency businesses are:
When we say that Bitcoin is now regulated, what we mean is that these questions have been settled, officially published, and that they are now legally binding.
Businesses that are deemed to be “dealing in virtual currency” must register with FINTRAC as a money service business, just like they would if they were doing traditional currency exchange or payment processing.
There is no “license” required, which means that you do not need the government’s approval before you can operate a Bitcoin exchange business. However, when you operate a Money Service Business, you must register and comply with the laws… otherwise you risk jail time and large fines.

What activities are regulated as Money Service Business activity?

A virtual currency exchange transaction is defined as: “an exchange, at the request of another person or entity, of virtual currency for funds, funds for virtual currency or one virtual currency for another.” This includes, but is not limited to:

Notice to foreign Bitcoin companies with clients in Canada

Regardless of whether or not your business is based in Canada, you must register with FINTRAC as a Foreign Money Service Business, if:

How this affects BullBitcoin.com and Bylls.com

The regulation of Bitcoin exchange and payment services has always been inevitable. If we want Bitcoin to be considered as money, we must accept that it will be regulated like other monies. Our stance on the regulation issue has always been that Bitcoin exchanges and payment processors should be regulated like fiat currency exchanges and payment processors, no more, no less. This is the outcome we obtained.
To comply with these regulations, we are implementing a few changes to our Know-Your-Customer requirement and transaction limits which may paradoxically make your experience using Bull Bitcoin and Bylls even more private and convenient!

The bad news

The good news

To understand these regulations, we highly recommend reading this summary by our good friends and partners at Outlier Compliance.

Summary of our obligations

Our responsibilities:
The information required to perform a compliant know-your-customer validation:
Record keeping obligations:

Suspicious transaction reporting

Satoshi Portal is required to make suspicious transactions report to FINTRAC after we have detected a fact that amounts to reasonable grounds to suspect that one of your transactions is related to the commission or attempted commission of a money laundering offence or a terrorist activity financing offence.
Failure by Satoshi Portal Inc. to report a suspicious transaction could lead to up to five years imprisonment, a fine of up to $2,000,000, or both, for its executives.
We are not allowed to share with anyone other than FINTRAC, including our clients, the contents of a suspicious transaction report as well as the fact that a suspicious transaction report has been filed.

What is suspicious activity?

Note for bitcoinca: this section applies ONLY to Bull Bitcoin. Most exchanges have much stricter interpretation of what is suspicious. You should operate under the assumption that using Coinjoin or TOR will get you flagged at some other exchanges even though it's okay for Bull Bitcoin. That is simply because we have a more sophisticated understanding of privacy best practices.
Identifying suspicious behavior is heavily dependent on the context of each transaction. We understand and take into account that for many of our customers, privacy and libertarian beliefs are of the utmost importance, and that some users may not know that the behavior they are engaging in is suspicious. When we are concerned or confused about the behaviors of our users, we endeavour to discuss it with them before jumping to conclusions.
In general, here are a few tips:
Here are some examples of behavior that we do not consider suspicious:
Here are some example indicators of behavior that would lead us to investigate whether or not a transaction is suspicious:

What does this mean for Bitcoin?

It was always standard practice for Bitcoin companies to operate under the assumption they would eventually be regulated and adopt policies and procedures as if they were already regulated. The same practices used for legal KYC were already commonplace to mitigate fraud (chargebacks).
In addition, law enforcement and other government agencies in Canada were already issuing subpoenas and information requests to Bitcoin companies to obtain the information of users that were under investigation.
We suspect that cash-based Bitcoin exchanges, whether Bitcoin ATMs, physical Bitcoin exchanges or Peer-to-Peer trading, will be the most affected since they will no longer be able to operate without KYC and the absence of KYC was the primary feature that allowed them to justify charging such high fees and exchange rate premiums.
One thing is certain, as of today, there is no ambiguity whatsoever that Bitcoin is 100% legal and regulated in Canada!
submitted by FrancisPouliot to BitcoinCA [link] [comments]

Thoughts on Physical Transactions

Was reading this article on physical Bitcoins https://bitcoinmagazine.com/articles/promise-and-regulatory-challenge-physical-bitcoins and it got me thinking...
A lot of people seem to want to be able to associate digital coins to a physical item, that can be exchanged easily in face-to-face purchases. One problem with most of the existing physical coin solutions though is that there's no guarantee that the person giving you the physical coin hasn't copied its secret spendkey already, and won't drain the funds out of the coin as soon as they walk away from you. The key concept I latched onto is this:
Another interesting idea, which has been discussed a few times on Bitcoin Forum (e.g. 1, 2, 3), is that of “hijacking” physical banknotes to carry a value in bitcoin. A physical bill (say a $1 bill) identified by a serial number would be assigned a value in bitcoin (say 0.1 BTC) and used as a physical bitcoin bill, with robust anti-counterfeiting measures automatically provided courtesy of the state.
“I found one of those powerful ideas that are so simple, but so odd at first sight, that can go unnoticed,” said Lerner in his 2013 post, inspired by a Bitcoin Forum discussion. “The idea is that people could use fiat banknotes as a medium to transfer bitcoins, for offline Bitcoin payments.”
Binding a value in bitcoin to the serial number of a banknote, in such a way as to permit the last bearer to redeem it, seems impossible to do in a watertight and decentralized way, but perhaps a central operator could implement a similar scheme.
Lerner’s solution is simpler: “[If] we transfer some BTC to a [unspendable] output which describes the banknote (e.g. country, denomination and serial number), we could bind the BTC to the banknote forever, as long as people believe the banknote represents those ‘destroyed’ BTC,” he said. “[For] the system to work, everyone must agree that those BitBanknotes really hold the BTC value. But you can count on me: I would agree! Why not?”
We could easily apply this concept to Monero. Hash the serial number of a $1 bill (for example - any fiat note would do) to deterministically produce a wallet address. This address would be constructed to have no spendkey, only a viewkey. If you want to spend some Monero in physical shops, first you load up a couple notes by sending XMR to the address of a $1 bill in your pocket. Then you go out into the world and spend the note in an in-person purchase. The vendor accepting your note just scans the bill to get the serial number, hashes it to produce the viewkey, and can immediately confirm whether the claimed XMR value is present. If you load the notes a moderately long time in advance of spending them, then the vendor doesn't even need a live fullnode to verify the balance; maybe a blockchain snapshot from days or weeks earlier will be sufficient. That means notes can be spent and verified even without live mainnet access.
As an optimization, since reading the entire blockchain to find the funds owned by the address could take some time, you could print onto the note a QRcode containing the block ID of the block containing the txn that you loaded the funds with. Then the recipient can just do a single blockchain lookup to verify the funds.
If this form of usage became commonplace, crypto ATMs could be set to accept these bills too, such that depositing into an ATM can credit a wallet with the equivalent amount of normal, spendable electronic XMR.
Just putting this out there, food for thought.
submitted by hyc_symas to Monero [link] [comments]

Why i’m bullish on Zilliqa (long read)

Hey all, I've been researching coins since 2017 and have gone through 100s of them in the last 3 years. I got introduced to blockchain via Bitcoin of course, analysed Ethereum thereafter and from that moment I have a keen interest in smart contact platforms. I’m passionate about Ethereum but I find Zilliqa to have a better risk reward ratio. Especially because Zilliqa has found an elegant balance between being secure, decentralised and scalable in my opinion.
 
Below I post my analysis why from all the coins I went through I’m most bullish on Zilliqa (yes I went through Tezos, EOS, NEO, VeChain, Harmony, Algorand, Cardano etc.). Note that this is not investment advice and although it's a thorough analysis there is obviously some bias involved. Looking forward to what you all think!
 
Fun fact: the name Zilliqa is a play on ‘silica’ silicon dioxide which means “Silicon for the high-throughput consensus computer.”
 
This post is divided into (i) Technology, (ii) Business & Partnerships, and (iii) Marketing & Community. I’ve tried to make the technology part readable for a broad audience. If you’ve ever tried understanding the inner workings of Bitcoin and Ethereum you should be able to grasp most parts. Otherwise just skim through and once you are zoning out head to the next part.
 
Technology and some more:
 
Introduction The technology is one of the main reasons why I’m so bullish on Zilliqa. First thing you see on their website is: “Zilliqa is a high-performance, high-security blockchain platform for enterprises and next-generation applications.” These are some bold statements.
 
Before we deep dive into the technology let’s take a step back in time first as they have quite the history. The initial research paper from which Zilliqa originated dates back to August 2016: Elastico: A Secure Sharding Protocol For Open Blockchains where Loi Luu (Kyber Network) is one of the co-authors. Other ideas that led to the development of what Zilliqa has become today are: Bitcoin-NG, collective signing CoSi, ByzCoin and Omniledger.
 
The technical white paper was made public in August 2017 and since then they have achieved everything stated in the white paper and also created their own open source intermediate level smart contract language called Scilla (functional programming language similar to OCaml) too.
 
Mainnet is live since end of January 2019 with daily transaction rate growing continuously. About a week ago mainnet reached 5 million transactions, 500.000+ addresses in total along with 2400 nodes keeping the network decentralised and secure. Circulating supply is nearing 11 billion and currently only mining rewards are left. Maximum supply is 21 billion with annual inflation being 7.13% currently and will only decrease with time.
 
Zilliqa realised early on that the usage of public cryptocurrencies and smart contracts were increasing but decentralised, secure and scalable alternatives were lacking in the crypto space. They proposed to apply sharding onto a public smart contract blockchain where the transaction rate increases almost linear with the increase in amount of nodes. More nodes = higher transaction throughput and increased decentralisation. Sharding comes in many forms and Zilliqa uses network-, transaction- and computational sharding. Network sharding opens up the possibility of using transaction- and computational sharding on top. Zilliqa does not use state sharding for now. We’ll come back to this later.
 
Before we continue disecting how Zilliqa achieves such from a technological standpoint it’s good to keep in mind that a blockchain being decentralised and secure and scalable is still one of the main hurdles in allowing widespread usage of decentralised networks. In my opinion this needs to be solved first before blockchains can get to the point where they can create and add large scale value. So I invite you to read the next section to grasp the underlying fundamentals. Because after all these premises need to be true otherwise there isn’t a fundamental case to be bullish on Zilliqa, right?
 
Down the rabbit hole
 
How have they achieved this? Let’s define the basics first: key players on Zilliqa are the users and the miners. A user is anybody who uses the blockchain to transfer funds or run smart contracts. Miners are the (shard) nodes in the network who run the consensus protocol and get rewarded for their service in Zillings (ZIL). The mining network is divided into several smaller networks called shards, which is also referred to as ‘network sharding’. Miners subsequently are randomly assigned to a shard by another set of miners called DS (Directory Service) nodes. The regular shards process transactions and the outputs of these shards are eventually combined by the DS shard as they reach consensus on the final state. More on how these DS shards reach consensus (via pBFT) will be explained later on.
 
The Zilliqa network produces two types of blocks: DS blocks and Tx blocks. One DS Block consists of 100 Tx Blocks. And as previously mentioned there are two types of nodes concerned with reaching consensus: shard nodes and DS nodes. Becoming a shard node or DS node is being defined by the result of a PoW cycle (Ethash) at the beginning of the DS Block. All candidate mining nodes compete with each other and run the PoW (Proof-of-Work) cycle for 60 seconds and the submissions achieving the highest difficulty will be allowed on the network. And to put it in perspective: the average difficulty for one DS node is ~ 2 Th/s equaling 2.000.000 Mh/s or 55 thousand+ GeForce GTX 1070 / 8 GB GPUs at 35.4 Mh/s. Each DS Block 10 new DS nodes are allowed. And a shard node needs to provide around 8.53 GH/s currently (around 240 GTX 1070s). Dual mining ETH/ETC and ZIL is possible and can be done via mining software such as Phoenix and Claymore. There are pools and if you have large amounts of hashing power (Ethash) available you could mine solo.
 
The PoW cycle of 60 seconds is a peak performance and acts as an entry ticket to the network. The entry ticket is called a sybil resistance mechanism and makes it incredibly hard for adversaries to spawn lots of identities and manipulate the network with these identities. And after every 100 Tx Blocks which corresponds to roughly 1,5 hour this PoW process repeats. In between these 1,5 hour no PoW needs to be done meaning Zilliqa’s energy consumption to keep the network secure is low. For more detailed information on how mining works click here.
Okay, hats off to you. You have made it this far. Before we go any deeper down the rabbit hole we first must understand why Zilliqa goes through all of the above technicalities and understand a bit more what a blockchain on a more fundamental level is. Because the core of Zilliqa’s consensus protocol relies on the usage of pBFT (practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance) we need to know more about state machines and their function. Navigate to Viewblock, a Zilliqa block explorer, and just come back to this article. We will use this site to navigate through a few concepts.
 
We have established that Zilliqa is a public and distributed blockchain. Meaning that everyone with an internet connection can send ZILs, trigger smart contracts etc. and there is no central authority who fully controls the network. Zilliqa and other public and distributed blockchains (like Bitcoin and Ethereum) can also be defined as state machines.
 
Taking the liberty of paraphrasing examples and definitions given by Samuel Brooks’ medium article, he describes the definition of a blockchain (like Zilliqa) as:
“A peer-to-peer, append-only datastore that uses consensus to synchronise cryptographically-secure data”.
 
Next he states that: >“blockchains are fundamentally systems for managing valid state transitions”.* For some more context, I recommend reading the whole medium article to get a better grasp of the definitions and understanding of state machines. Nevertheless, let’s try to simplify and compile it into a single paragraph. Take traffic lights as an example: all its states (red, amber and green) are predefined, all possible outcomes are known and it doesn’t matter if you encounter the traffic light today or tomorrow. It will still behave the same. Managing the states of a traffic light can be done by triggering a sensor on the road or pushing a button resulting in one traffic lights’ state going from green to red (via amber) and another light from red to green.
 
With public blockchains like Zilliqa this isn’t so straightforward and simple. It started with block #1 almost 1,5 years ago and every 45 seconds or so a new block linked to the previous block is being added. Resulting in a chain of blocks with transactions in it that everyone can verify from block #1 to the current #647.000+ block. The state is ever changing and the states it can find itself in are infinite. And while the traffic light might work together in tandem with various other traffic lights, it’s rather insignificant comparing it to a public blockchain. Because Zilliqa consists of 2400 nodes who need to work together to achieve consensus on what the latest valid state is while some of these nodes may have latency or broadcast issues, drop offline or are deliberately trying to attack the network etc.
 
Now go back to the Viewblock page take a look at the amount of transaction, addresses, block and DS height and then hit refresh. Obviously as expected you see new incremented values on one or all parameters. And how did the Zilliqa blockchain manage to transition from a previous valid state to the latest valid state? By using pBFT to reach consensus on the latest valid state.
 
After having obtained the entry ticket, miners execute pBFT to reach consensus on the ever changing state of the blockchain. pBFT requires a series of network communication between nodes, and as such there is no GPU involved (but CPU). Resulting in the total energy consumed to keep the blockchain secure, decentralised and scalable being low.
 
pBFT stands for practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance and is an optimisation on the Byzantine Fault Tolerant algorithm. To quote Blockonomi: “In the context of distributed systems, Byzantine Fault Tolerance is the ability of a distributed computer network to function as desired and correctly reach a sufficient consensus despite malicious components (nodes) of the system failing or propagating incorrect information to other peers.” Zilliqa is such a distributed computer network and depends on the honesty of the nodes (shard and DS) to reach consensus and to continuously update the state with the latest block. If pBFT is a new term for you I can highly recommend the Blockonomi article.
 
The idea of pBFT was introduced in 1999 - one of the authors even won a Turing award for it - and it is well researched and applied in various blockchains and distributed systems nowadays. If you want more advanced information than the Blockonomi link provides click here. And if you’re in between Blockonomi and University of Singapore read the Zilliqa Design Story Part 2 dating from October 2017.
Quoting from the Zilliqa tech whitepaper: “pBFT relies upon a correct leader (which is randomly selected) to begin each phase and proceed when the sufficient majority exists. In case the leader is byzantine it can stall the entire consensus protocol. To address this challenge, pBFT offers a view change protocol to replace the byzantine leader with another one.”
 
pBFT can tolerate ⅓ of the nodes being dishonest (offline counts as Byzantine = dishonest) and the consensus protocol will function without stalling or hiccups. Once there are more than ⅓ of dishonest nodes but no more than ⅔ the network will be stalled and a view change will be triggered to elect a new DS leader. Only when more than ⅔ of the nodes are dishonest (>66%) double spend attacks become possible.
 
If the network stalls no transactions can be processed and one has to wait until a new honest leader has been elected. When the mainnet was just launched and in its early phases, view changes happened regularly. As of today the last stalling of the network - and view change being triggered - was at the end of October 2019.
 
Another benefit of using pBFT for consensus besides low energy is the immediate finality it provides. Once your transaction is included in a block and the block is added to the chain it’s done. Lastly, take a look at this article where three types of finality are being defined: probabilistic, absolute and economic finality. Zilliqa falls under the absolute finality (just like Tendermint for example). Although lengthy already we skipped through some of the inner workings from Zilliqa’s consensus: read the Zilliqa Design Story Part 3 and you will be close to having a complete picture on it. Enough about PoW, sybil resistance mechanism, pBFT etc. Another thing we haven’t looked at yet is the amount of decentralisation.
 
Decentralisation
 
Currently there are four shards, each one of them consisting of 600 nodes. 1 shard with 600 so called DS nodes (Directory Service - they need to achieve a higher difficulty than shard nodes) and 1800 shard nodes of which 250 are shard guards (centralised nodes controlled by the team). The amount of shard guards has been steadily declining from 1200 in January 2019 to 250 as of May 2020. On the Viewblock statistics you can see that many of the nodes are being located in the US but those are only the (CPU parts of the) shard nodes who perform pBFT. There is no data from where the PoW sources are coming. And when the Zilliqa blockchain starts reaching their transaction capacity limit, a network upgrade needs to be executed to lift the current cap of maximum 2400 nodes to allow more nodes and formation of more shards which will allow to network to keep on scaling according to demand.
Besides shard nodes there are also seed nodes. The main role of seed nodes is to serve as direct access points (for end users and clients) to the core Zilliqa network that validates transactions. Seed nodes consolidate transaction requests and forward these to the lookup nodes (another type of nodes) for distribution to the shards in the network. Seed nodes also maintain the entire transaction history and the global state of the blockchain which is needed to provide services such as block explorers. Seed nodes in the Zilliqa network are comparable to Infura on Ethereum.
 
The seed nodes were first only operated by Zilliqa themselves, exchanges and Viewblock. Operators of seed nodes like exchanges had no incentive to open them for the greater public.They were centralised at first. Decentralisation at the seed nodes level has been steadily rolled out since March 2020 ( Zilliqa Improvement Proposal 3 ). Currently the amount of seed nodes is being increased, they are public facing and at the same time PoS is applied to incentivize seed node operators and make it possible for ZIL holders to stake and earn passive yields. Important distinction: seed nodes are not involved with consensus! That is still PoW as entry ticket and pBFT for the actual consensus.
 
5% of the block rewards are being assigned to seed nodes (from the beginning in 2019) and those are being used to pay out ZIL stakers.The 5% block rewards with an annual yield of 10.03% translates to roughly 610 MM ZILs in total that can be staked. Exchanges use the custodial variant of staking and wallets like Moonlet will use the non custodial version (starting in Q3 2020). Staking is being done by sending ZILs to a smart contract created by Zilliqa and audited by Quantstamp.
 
With a high amount of DS & shard nodes and seed nodes becoming more decentralised too, Zilliqa qualifies for the label of decentralised in my opinion.
 
Smart contracts
 
Let me start by saying I’m not a developer and my programming skills are quite limited. So I‘m taking the ELI5 route (maybe 12) but if you are familiar with Javascript, Solidity or specifically OCaml please head straight to Scilla - read the docs to get a good initial grasp of how Zilliqa’s smart contract language Scilla works and if you ask yourself “why another programming language?” check this article. And if you want to play around with some sample contracts in an IDE click here. Faucet can be found here. And more information on architecture, dapp development and API can be found on the Developer Portal.
If you are more into listening and watching: check this recent webinar explaining Zilliqa and Scilla. Link is time stamped so you’ll start right away with a platform introduction, R&D roadmap 2020 and afterwards a proper Scilla introduction.
 
Generalised: programming languages can be divided into being ‘object oriented’ or ‘functional’. Here is an ELI5 given by software development academy: > “all programmes have two basic components, data – what the programme knows – and behaviour – what the programme can do with that data. So object-oriented programming states that combining data and related behaviours in one place, is called “object”, which makes it easier to understand how a particular program works. On the other hand, functional programming argues that data and behaviour are different things and should be separated to ensure their clarity.”
 
Scilla is on the functional side and shares similarities with OCaml: > OCaml is a general purpose programming language with an emphasis on expressiveness and safety. It has an advanced type system that helps catch your mistakes without getting in your way. It's used in environments where a single mistake can cost millions and speed matters, is supported by an active community, and has a rich set of libraries and development tools. For all its power, OCaml is also pretty simple, which is one reason it's often used as a teaching language.
 
Scilla is blockchain agnostic, can be implemented onto other blockchains as well, is recognised by academics and won a so called Distinguished Artifact Award award at the end of last year.
 
One of the reasons why the Zilliqa team decided to create their own programming language focused on preventing smart contract vulnerabilities safety is that adding logic on a blockchain, programming, means that you cannot afford to make mistakes. Otherwise it could cost you. It’s all great and fun blockchains being immutable but updating your code because you found a bug isn’t the same as with a regular web application for example. And with smart contracts it inherently involves cryptocurrencies in some form thus value.
 
Another difference with programming languages on a blockchain is gas. Every transaction you do on a smart contract platform like Zilliqa for Ethereum costs gas. With gas you basically pay for computational costs. Sending a ZIL from address A to address B costs 0.001 ZIL currently. Smart contracts are more complex, often involve various functions and require more gas (if gas is a new concept click here ).
 
So with Scilla, similar to Solidity, you need to make sure that “every function in your smart contract will run as expected without hitting gas limits. An improper resource analysis may lead to situations where funds may get stuck simply because a part of the smart contract code cannot be executed due to gas limits. Such constraints are not present in traditional software systems”. Scilla design story part 1
 
Some examples of smart contract issues you’d want to avoid are: leaking funds, ‘unexpected changes to critical state variables’ (example: someone other than you setting his or her address as the owner of the smart contract after creation) or simply killing a contract.
 
Scilla also allows for formal verification. Wikipedia to the rescue:
In the context of hardware and software systems, formal verification is the act of proving or disproving the correctness of intended algorithms underlying a system with respect to a certain formal specification or property, using formal methods of mathematics.
 
Formal verification can be helpful in proving the correctness of systems such as: cryptographic protocols, combinational circuits, digital circuits with internal memory, and software expressed as source code.
 
Scilla is being developed hand-in-hand with formalization of its semantics and its embedding into the Coq proof assistant — a state-of-the art tool for mechanized proofs about properties of programs.”
 
Simply put, with Scilla and accompanying tooling developers can be mathematically sure and proof that the smart contract they’ve written does what he or she intends it to do.
 
Smart contract on a sharded environment and state sharding
 
There is one more topic I’d like to touch on: smart contract execution in a sharded environment (and what is the effect of state sharding). This is a complex topic. I’m not able to explain it any easier than what is posted here. But I will try to compress the post into something easy to digest.
 
Earlier on we have established that Zilliqa can process transactions in parallel due to network sharding. This is where the linear scalability comes from. We can define simple transactions: a transaction from address A to B (Category 1), a transaction where a user interacts with one smart contract (Category 2) and the most complex ones where triggering a transaction results in multiple smart contracts being involved (Category 3). The shards are able to process transactions on their own without interference of the other shards. With Category 1 transactions that is doable, with Category 2 transactions sometimes if that address is in the same shard as the smart contract but with Category 3 you definitely need communication between the shards. Solving that requires to make a set of communication rules the protocol needs to follow in order to process all transactions in a generalised fashion.
 
And this is where the downsides of state sharding comes in currently. All shards in Zilliqa have access to the complete state. Yes the state size (0.1 GB at the moment) grows and all of the nodes need to store it but it also means that they don’t need to shop around for information available on other shards. Requiring more communication and adding more complexity. Computer science knowledge and/or developer knowledge required links if you want to dig further: Scilla - language grammar Scilla - Foundations for Verifiable Decentralised Computations on a Blockchain Gas Accounting NUS x Zilliqa: Smart contract language workshop
 
Easier to follow links on programming Scilla https://learnscilla.com/home Ivan on Tech
 
Roadmap / Zilliqa 2.0
 
There is no strict defined roadmap but here are topics being worked on. And via the Zilliqa website there is also more information on the projects they are working on.
 
Business & Partnerships  
It’s not only technology in which Zilliqa seems to be excelling as their ecosystem has been expanding and starting to grow rapidly. The project is on a mission to provide OpenFinance (OpFi) to the world and Singapore is the right place to be due to its progressive regulations and futuristic thinking. Singapore has taken a proactive approach towards cryptocurrencies by introducing the Payment Services Act 2019 (PS Act). Among other things, the PS Act will regulate intermediaries dealing with certain cryptocurrencies, with a particular focus on consumer protection and anti-money laundering. It will also provide a stable regulatory licensing and operating framework for cryptocurrency entities, effectively covering all crypto businesses and exchanges based in Singapore. According to PWC 82% of the surveyed executives in Singapore reported blockchain initiatives underway and 13% of them have already brought the initiatives live to the market. There is also an increasing list of organisations that are starting to provide digital payment services. Moreover, Singaporean blockchain developers Building Cities Beyond has recently created an innovation $15 million grant to encourage development on its ecosystem. This all suggest that Singapore tries to position itself as (one of) the leading blockchain hubs in the world.
 
Zilliqa seems to already taking advantage of this and recently helped launch Hg Exchange on their platform, together with financial institutions PhillipCapital, PrimePartners and Fundnel. Hg Exchange, which is now approved by the Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS), uses smart contracts to represent digital assets. Through Hg Exchange financial institutions worldwide can use Zilliqa's safe-by-design smart contracts to enable the trading of private equities. For example, think of companies such as Grab, AirBnB, SpaceX that are not available for public trading right now. Hg Exchange will allow investors to buy shares of private companies & unicorns and capture their value before an IPO. Anquan, the main company behind Zilliqa, has also recently announced that they became a partner and shareholder in TEN31 Bank, which is a fully regulated bank allowing for tokenization of assets and is aiming to bridge the gap between conventional banking and the blockchain world. If STOs, the tokenization of assets, and equity trading will continue to increase, then Zilliqa’s public blockchain would be the ideal candidate due to its strategic positioning, partnerships, regulatory compliance and the technology that is being built on top of it.
 
What is also very encouraging is their focus on banking the un(der)banked. They are launching a stablecoin basket starting with XSGD. As many of you know, stablecoins are currently mostly used for trading. However, Zilliqa is actively trying to broaden the use case of stablecoins. I recommend everybody to read this text that Amrit Kumar wrote (one of the co-founders). These stablecoins will be integrated in the traditional markets and bridge the gap between the crypto world and the traditional world. This could potentially revolutionize and legitimise the crypto space if retailers and companies will for example start to use stablecoins for payments or remittances, instead of it solely being used for trading.
 
Zilliqa also released their DeFi strategic roadmap (dating November 2019) which seems to be aligning well with their OpFi strategy. A non-custodial DEX is coming to Zilliqa made by Switcheo which allows cross-chain trading (atomic swaps) between ETH, EOS and ZIL based tokens. They also signed a Memorandum of Understanding for a (soon to be announced) USD stablecoin. And as Zilliqa is all about regulations and being compliant, I’m speculating on it to be a regulated USD stablecoin. Furthermore, XSGD is already created and visible on block explorer and XIDR (Indonesian Stablecoin) is also coming soon via StraitsX. Here also an overview of the Tech Stack for Financial Applications from September 2019. Further quoting Amrit Kumar on this:
 
There are two basic building blocks in DeFi/OpFi though: 1) stablecoins as you need a non-volatile currency to get access to this market and 2) a dex to be able to trade all these financial assets. The rest are build on top of these blocks.
 
So far, together with our partners and community, we have worked on developing these building blocks with XSGD as a stablecoin. We are working on bringing a USD-backed stablecoin as well. We will soon have a decentralised exchange developed by Switcheo. And with HGX going live, we are also venturing into the tokenization space. More to come in the future.”*
 
Additionally, they also have this ZILHive initiative that injects capital into projects. There have been already 6 waves of various teams working on infrastructure, innovation and research, and they are not from ASEAN or Singapore only but global: see Grantees breakdown by country. Over 60 project teams from over 20 countries have contributed to Zilliqa's ecosystem. This includes individuals and teams developing wallets, explorers, developer toolkits, smart contract testing frameworks, dapps, etc. As some of you may know, Unstoppable Domains (UD) blew up when they launched on Zilliqa. UD aims to replace cryptocurrency addresses with a human readable name and allows for uncensorable websites. Zilliqa will probably be the only one able to handle all these transactions onchain due to ability to scale and its resulting low fees which is why the UD team launched this on Zilliqa in the first place. Furthermore, Zilliqa also has a strong emphasis on security, compliance, and privacy, which is why they partnered with companies like Elliptic, ChainSecurity (part of PwC Switzerland), and Incognito. Their sister company Aqilliz (Zilliqa spelled backwards) focuses on revolutionizing the digital advertising space and is doing interesting things like using Zilliqa to track outdoor digital ads with companies like Foodpanda.
 
Zilliqa is listed on nearly all major exchanges, having several different fiat-gateways and recently have been added to Binance’s margin trading and futures trading with really good volume. They also have a very impressive team with good credentials and experience. They dont just have “tech people”. They have a mix of tech people, business people, marketeers, scientists, and more. Naturally, it's good to have a mix of people with different skill sets if you work in the crypto space.
 
Marketing & Community
 
Zilliqa has a very strong community. If you just follow their Twitter their engagement is much higher for a coin that has approximately 80k followers. They also have been ‘coin of the day’ by LunarCrush many times. LunarCrush tracks real-time cryptocurrency value and social data. According to their data it seems Zilliqa has a more fundamental and deeper understanding of marketing and community engagement than almost all other coins. While almost all coins have been a bit frozen in the last months, Zilliqa seems to be on its own bull run. It was somewhere in the 100s a few months ago and is currently ranked #46 on CoinGecko. Their official Telegram also has over 20k people and is very active, and their community channel which is over 7k now is more active and larger than many other official channels. Their local communities) also seem to be growing.
 
Moreover, their community started ‘Zillacracy’ together with the Zilliqa core team ( see www.zillacracy.com ). It’s a community run initiative where people from all over the world are now helping with marketing and development on Zilliqa. Since its launch in February 2020 they have been doing a lot and will also run their own non custodial seed node for staking. This seed node will also allow them to start generating revenue for them to become a self sustaining entity that could potentially scale up to become a decentralized company working in parallel with the Zilliqa core team. Comparing it to all the other smart contract platforms (e.g. Cardano, EOS, Tezos etc.) they don't seem to have started a similar initiatives (correct me if I’m wrong though). This suggest in my opinion that these other smart contract platforms do not fully understand how to utilize the ‘power of the community’. This is something you cannot ‘buy with money’ and gives many projects in the space a disadvantage.
 
Zilliqa also released two social products called SocialPay and Zeeves. SocialPay allows users to earn ZILs while tweeting with a specific hashtag. They have recently used it in partnership with the Singapore Red Cross for a marketing campaign after their initial pilot program. It seems like a very valuable social product with a good use case. I can see a lot of traditional companies entering the space through this product, which they seem to suggest will happen. Tokenizing hashtags with smart contracts to get network effect is a very smart and innovative idea.
 
Regarding Zeeves, this is a tipping bot for Telegram. They already have 1000s of signups and they plan to keep upgrading it for more and more people to use it (e.g. they recently have added a quiz features). They also use it during AMAs to reward people in real time. It’s a very smart approach to grow their communities and get familiar with ZIL. I can see this becoming very big on Telegram. This tool suggests, again, that the Zilliqa team has a deeper understanding what the crypto space and community needs and is good at finding the right innovative tools to grow and scale.
 
To be honest, I haven’t covered everything (i’m also reaching the character limited haha). So many updates happening lately that it's hard to keep up, such as the International Monetary Fund mentioning Zilliqa in their report, custodial and non-custodial Staking, Binance Margin, Futures & Widget, entering the Indian market, and more. The Head of Marketing Colin Miles has also released this as an overview of what is coming next. And last but not least, Vitalik Buterin has been mentioning Zilliqa lately acknowledging Zilliqa and mentioning that both projects have a lot of room to grow. There is much more info of course and a good part of it has been served to you on a silver platter. I invite you to continue researching by yourself :-) And if you have any comments or questions please post here!
submitted by haveyouheardaboutit to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

Is Trezor taking advantage of COVID-19 and Stealing BTC from your wallet too?

Okay, so i wanna start off by saying I've had TREZOR for over 6 months now and only since Monday i started taking it seriously by storing my Bitcoins in there.
I purchased the device after seeing an ad claiming it was un-hackable and the most secure wallet on earth blah blah blah,
since purchased i never transferred more than 2000 in and out of my account but recently i decided to withdraw my funds of around 1.3btc from BINANCE into my TREZOR wallet.
it was in there since Monday 6th of April, but when i logged in early hours of this morning my Bitcoins was gone! and my transactions... i never updated my Trezor device in order for my previous wallets to just Disappear like that. The worst part is i recent moved houses and i cant seem to fine the piece of paper where i input my recovery seed.
i just want to know if this has ever happened to anyone? why does this happen and whats the solution? will i get my money back? as im the type of person who stores all his money on bitcoin and doesn't use banks - that was literally everything i had left.
I'm sat here praying that this is just a server error of some sort and it will all be by the afternoon.
TREZOR if your reading this, i hope this wasn't done on purpose, i hope your not taking advantage of COVID-19 and i hope you can return to me whats mine as soon as possible. i got a strong feeling BTC is going to fall fast soon and i don't want to lose any of what i have!
P.S
Below is a link of the blockchain search of my account, you can see that address starting with (3Gyk52T) is mine and you can see it says i have no money in there, which is weird as i transferred a friend $108 to account ending in (1MJfxqp1Z) and at the exact same time it says 1.29863517 BTC was transferred to account starting with (31kZXzJA5) i don't know if that's one of the other accounts on my wallet as i haven't memorized it yet but i definitely didn't send my full balance to another wallet - Furthermore the money is still in the wallet...
I have posted the Blochain LookUp Link in the Comments as my posts keep getting put down by moderator and making me wait 20mins before i post a new post smh
submitted by nsahebltd to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

I've been working on a prototype Jonathan Silverblood's proposed CashIntents. CashIntents will allow for verifiable, trustless, and decentralized payment information. For example: "pokkst#12435 sent you $10 USD on September 4th, 2019"

An example transaction can be found here: https://explorer.bitcoin.com/tbch/tx/dd5e19e8a63279cb87e000abf31211b723c2c2b5a0a8ea475a3beeb6a0a7d646
This system utilizes the OP_RETURN of a transaction, with various portions of the OP_RETURN containing data that will allow the recipient to verify that the sender is who they say they are, and that they did in fact send you that money.
When sending, the sender will include the transaction id of the recipient's Cash Account (the txid that registered the Cash Account), and the transaction id for their own Cash Account (the txid that registered their own Cash Account). The sender will also include the amount sent, and the currency in which they used, as well as a timestamp.
Then the program will take the recipient txid, sender txid, amount, currency, and timestamp and combine the strings together like so:
recipienttxidsendertxidamountcurrencytimestamp
then that string is hashed:
3adb37317e844d995aa6225905bfb0a062b98b10f8579b6f80945088b410bab3
then this hash is signed with the sender Cash Account's address, which will produce a signature like so:
HxBnqQdGRsin9+1FkFAD/8oWb87YAOhexiK4AJaNpEdydk0BZzWfrxR+WuclKNk3owynWUZXTFGFj4+gqpcAHKw=
this is then attached to the OP_RETURN at the very end, and the sender sends the transaction.
On the receiver's end, they will receive the transaction and detect that there is an OP_RETURN. It will parse the OP_RETURN to see if it's a CashIntent OP_RETURN. If it is, it will grab the data from the OP_RETURN like so:
recipient txid, sender txid, amount, currency, timestamp, signature
using the sender txid, we can grab the address that the sender signed with (as it is supposed to be signed with the Cash Account address of the sender) using Cash Account lookup servers and block explorers to grab the necessary data to parse the address:
bitcoincash:q(...)
we can then take each variable like the sender did, and combine them into one string
recipienttxidsendertxidamountcurrencytimestamp
then hash that string to get the same hash that the sender used in his message (we do this locally that way the sender doesn't have to store it on the chain, and so we can verify ourselves):
3adb37317e844d995aa6225905bfb0a062b98b10f8579b6f80945088b410bab3
then we take the signature, hash, and address and verify that the signature is in fact valid. If it verifies, then we can be certain that the sender is in fact who they say they are and that they did send us this money.
This can then be displayed in-app when viewing the transaction as:
pokkst#12435 sent you $10 USD on September 4th, 2019
This is still a prototype, and will need to be finished before rolling it out in Crescent Cash as the first wallet to support CashIntents, but it is working and will hopefully be ready soon. :)
submitted by _pokkst to btc [link] [comments]

Cashaccount integration in Electron-Cash is done!

Help test it with the dev preview here !
Featuring:
To use: Type im_uname#100 into the send box, continue elsewhere (like the amount box) and see the send box verify the account and add 🍋 to it. Send monies.
Alternatively, for more frequent contacts, right click anywhere in the "contacts" tab, "New Cashaccount" follow instructions.
To register: Go to "addresses" tab, right click an address you want to register, "Register New". Make sure you have a few cents in the wallet!
Q: Wait, it binds to just one address?
A: Yes... for now. Type 4 / Reusable Addresses specs is in the works. Only use this for addresses you don't mind being made public.
Q: What are the emojis for? Do I need to type them?
A: No you don't, they are there so you're sure you didn't mistype anything.
Q: This looks awesome!
A: Thank you.
Q: I heard you had this bounty, what happened?
A: It's been paid out to nilacthegrim#2186🔑 . Big thanks to ichundes#102🐪 and jonathan#100 ☯️ as well!
Q: toorik said he's gonna pay $200 as well?
A: Yes, he should direct $200 of BCH to nilacthegrim#2186 🔑. Three cheers for bounty fulfilment!
submitted by imaginary_username to btc [link] [comments]

IQ stock broker is a Forex & bitcoin Company in USA Founded in 2012 by a team of highly motivated professionals who are very passionate about trading on the world’s financial market, and are keen on empowering

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This makes it easy to trade from anywhere… at any time. You don’t need to have any previous trading experience to get going. It is as easy as 1-2-3. The interface is remarkably user friendly. We have worked hard to ensure processes are fast and intuitive. Using our platform, customers can trade on options such as currencies, indices, stocks and commodities round the clock. We provide the most flexible pricing and the most suitable options on the market among all the Forex & Bitcoin companies in USA. Our objective is to make the trading process as simple and profitable as possible for all level of trader. Our team consists experienced professionals with backgrounds in binary trading, derivatives, risk management, payment processing as well as international laws and legislation. Contact us for Bitcoin, Cryptocurrency, forex, make money, online trade, stock exchange. IQ stock broker is listed in American Stock Exchange.
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submitted by IQstockbroker to u/IQstockbroker [link] [comments]

Badger now supports CashAccounts!

Badger Wallet for Chrome/Firefox v0.7.4 is live w/ support for CashAccounts! CashAccounts allow for human readable account names that are easy to share in conversation. So instead of sharing my address as bitcoincash:qrhncn6hgkhljqg4fuq4px5qg74sjz9fqqj64s9la9 I can share it as cgcardona#122. This makes sharing addresses much more human-friendly and less intimidating.

Downloads

Developer resources

If you're building your own app and want to use CashAccounts you can use the following REST endpoints and npm library.

REST endpoints

npm library

Note: if you create a CashAccount with Badger, you can send and receive tokens to CashAccount handles. Prior CashAccount registrations are not token aware and will work for BCH only.
submitted by cgcardona to btc [link] [comments]

(X-post /r/btc) Cashaccount integration in Electron-Cash is done!

Help test it with the dev preview here !
Featuring:
To use: Type im_uname#100 into the send box, continue elsewhere (like the amount box) and see the send box verify the account and add 🍋 to it. Send monies.
Alternatively, for more frequent contacts, right click anywhere in the "contacts" tab, "New Cashaccount" follow instructions.
To register: Go to "addresses" tab, right click an address you want to register, "Register New". Make sure you have a few cents in the wallet!
Q: Wait, it binds to just one address?
A: Yes... for now. Type 4 / Reusable Addresses specs is in the works. Only use this for addresses you don't mind being made public.
Q: What are the emojis for? Do I need to type them?
A: No you don't, they are there so you're sure you didn't mistype anything.
Q: This looks awesome!
A: Thank you.
Q: I heard you had this bounty, what happened?
A: It's been paid out to nilacthegrim#2186🔑 . Big thanks to ichundes#102🐪 and jonathan#100 ☯️ as well!
Q: toorik said he's gonna pay $200 as well?
A: Yes, he should direct $200 of BCH to nilacthegrim#2186 🔑. Three cheers for bounty fulfilment!
submitted by imaginary_username to Bitcoincash [link] [comments]

Hacked/compromised computers/network? What steps should I take?

Saw this email on most of my colleagues' spam folder in MS Outlook. The sender and the recipient are the same, my colleagues email addresses. So basically it was sent to/from the same email address:
Subject: Be sure to read this message! Your personal data is threatened!
Hi, dear user of *************.com
We have installed one RAT software into you device For this moment your email account is hacked too. I know your password. I logged in to your account and wrote this letter to you from there.
Changed your password? You're doing great! But my software recognizes every such action. I'm updating passwords! I'm always one step ahead....
So... I have downloaded all confidential information from your system and I got some more evidence. The most interesting moment that I have discovered are videos records where you masturbating.
I posted Spelevo Exploit modification on porn site, and then you installed my malicious code (trojan) on your operation system. When you clicked the button Play on porn video, at that moment my trojan was downloaded to your device. After installation, your front camera shoots video every time you masturbate, in addition, the software is synchronized with the video you choose.
For the moment, the software has harvrested all your contact information from social networks and email addresses. If you need to erase all of your collected data and videos, send me $714 in BTC (crypto currency).
This is my Bitcoin wallet: 13yAsTuS6MyjNUYde4EBabTZJFfZBRTZu1 You have 48 hours after reading this letter.
After your transaction I will erase all your data. Otherwise, I will send a video with your sweepstakes to all your colleagues, friends and relatives!!!
P.S. I ask you not to reply to this email, this is impossible (the sender's address is your own address).
And henceforth be more careful! Please visit only secure sites! Bye,Bye...
Copied and pasted the exact email format. I already checked the header, it came from our company's email/hosting. But I saw this line:
Received: from [14.254.26.179] (port=41608 helo=static.vnpt.vn) Did a whois lookup: https://who.is/whois-ip/ip-address/14.254.26.179
Is this a malware or virus infection? Should I scan each computer on our network? How serious or how threatening is this infection? What steps should I take next?
I already switched to another domain/email hosting last week and changed all email passwords. This email was received from our previous host (webhostingpad.com).
Any tips or help would be greatly appreciated. Thank you!
submitted by baloy4 to techsupport [link] [comments]

Question about compromised seeds

In Bitcoin one can see if a wallet contains coins by looking up the address in a block explorer.
In Monero one can't lookup addresses in a block explorer to see what it contains.

Now let's say we created a wallet with a seed + passphrase (i.e. the extra and optional user-defined seed word), but the seed was compromised.

If someone who obtained the seed now tries to brute-force the passphrase, then am I correct to assume that...

If that is indeed the case, then is it safe to say that having to scan the whole blockchain every single time for every generated Monero address makes it much more difficult to brute force the passphrase (with the seed being compromised) but much easier for Bitcoin addresses?
Or are there certain differences between these two currencies that level the playing field in this regard?

Edit: Replaced 'password' with 'passphrase' and added clarification.
submitted by Avanchnzel to Monero [link] [comments]

Firstbits address lookup?

Do you know a website that (still) supports lookup of firstbits addresses? I did not find any. Also blockchain.info does not support it any more. Any idea?
PS: Firstbits refers to the first address showing up in the blockchain starting with a certain sequence (the firstbits).
Edit: I don't understand why people downvote a fully pragmatic and legit question. Since the first replies couldn't help me, this question is apparently really difficult and everything but stupid. Also note that blockchain.info's address lookup field still says it supports firstbits, whereas in fact it doesn't.
submitted by Amichateur to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

A proposal for a decentralized social network layer capable of storing rich media

Hello folks!
I have been thinking about the idea of decentralised social network for quite some time, and recently the ideas formed what I think is a rather compete picture. In light of recent Yours announcements I think it's a proper time to share these ideas with a community.
It turned into a long post, and there is no guarantee these idea have a contact with reality, so forgive me if I stole a few minutes of your time.
Protools and standards that will help to understand the proposal (besides blockchain): Memo - blockchain-based base social network protocol, WebRTC transport protocol, WebTorrent JavaScript BitTorrent protocol implementation, BidDB - blockchain crawler by u/unwriter, Progressive Web Apps –– cross platform mobile and desktop apps installable without gatekeepers.
Overall, I prefer WebTorrent in my proposal instead of IPFS as BitTorrent protocol is proved to be robust for almost two decades, while IPFS at this moment is very young and overhyped.
What I propose is a layer that can exist on top of any Memo-like protocol, where Memo forms a base social network state, and the media layer extends its capabilities so that it's possible to store rich media files without any centralised hostings.
Here are the hypothesis/axioms I use as a basement for such a media layer
The proposed idea is based on a play of three actors, or a triangle of 'Original Posters' 'Moderators' and 'Viewers'. Below is detailed explanation of each role, and there are some sub-roles that will be discussed alongside.
Original Poster is anyone connected to the internet who is willing to share any kind of content with the world with only modern browser and a content itself in possession.
Moderator is anyone in the connected world who is willing to be engaged into a socially important role with only a desktop computer with decent amount of free disk space in possession. There is no need to ask a permission to become a moderator.
Viewer is anyone willing to enjoy the media without the need to be engaged with existing social media platforms.
Base technologies:
  1. A webtorrent enabled website with a support of basic bch wallet functionaloty.
  2. A webtorrent enabled website with a feed of op_return messages. Note: 1 and 2 can be implemented as a single platform. (e.g. instant.io x datacash x chainfeed)
  3. A webrtc enabled cross platform desktop torrent client hybridised with a bitdb instance
  4. A webtorrent enabled torrent tracker(s)
The flow:
The Original Poster uses a web browser to create a torrent of the attached media. OP registers the torrent on a tracker, puts infohash alongside a tracker url and desired hashtags into op_return and publishes the memo formatted transaction to bitcoin network. The progress bar shows the status of the 'pseudo' upload that's familiar to most non-tech savvy people. During that phase the content is in network’s ‘working-memory’.
The Moderator uses software to parse the op_return feed. The software continuously downloads all the media from initial seeders and presents it to moderator one by one. It does not open itself as a seeder until moderator decided whether this is a kind of content worth bothering. It's completely subjective decision and every moderator can follow personal strategy. It can be imagined as clicking the green and red buttons where the red one is clicked if the content is subjectively a complete garbage. Once the green button is clicked, moderator becomes a seeder of the content. Moderator can also 'reply' to OPs message with hashtags: every hashtag that corresponds to one of initial hashtags gives it additional weight. Every omitted hashtag loses weight. Some new hashtags can as well be introduced by a moderator. The deeper the history of moderator’s categorization activity, the more weight categorization transaction gives to hashtags (but this is a higher level concept and can vary from implementation to implementation). Moderator creates an internal queue of stored media and deletes the oldest content as soon as the storage threshold is hit (but some other policy can be implemented if moderator decides so). Described above is a level00 moderator who decided to judge the very unclassified content that's received directly from initial seeders.
If the collective speed of content approval is lower than speed of new content introduction, OPs is notified that it maybe necessary to wait for a prolonged time for content to be uploaded, or the fee can be included towards a 'super-moderator' address, so moderators who operate under a single swarm will priorities that content. That address can be a mulitisig where each moderator is a part of a joint account. Once in a while they unlock funds and distribute them in accordance to each moderator's contribution based on the number of 'categorisation transactions' – replies with hashtags, and there can be additional rules that prevent cheating such as only one categorisation transaction to each OP post is taken into account, or rules with some degree of centralisation that encourage seeding, such as the more the moderator seeds the more he earns from these fees if the swarm operates under a single tracker). Alternatively, payouts can be implemented as simple and centralised as existing mining pools.
There are Moderator sub-roles, such as a moderator can choose to only parse the content that was categorised to some degree (e.g. only nsfw content, or only non-nsfw content). The deeper the categorisation, the more precise is the kind of content that's fetched by a moderator, to a degree where moderator can actually enjoy the process a lot as he approves the kind of content he is the most interested in, akin to browsing chronologically filtered subreddit feed. Moderator can also choose to parse several 'categories' simply by 'subscribing' to several hashtags or hashtag tuples. The subroles can be named like moderator level01, level10, level11 etc. By replying to lower level moderator's categorisation transactions, higher-level moderators gives or removes hashtags weight.
The Viewer is presented with a feed of op_return media posts (similar to chainfeed.org), and the content is fetched on the fly from the webtorrent network. The moment the content is fetched the viewer becomes a seeder and continues seeding for as long as content is cached inside browser's storage. That way, the more moderators have approved the content, and the more followers the OP has, the longer the content will persist in a network's 'short-term’ memory.
The Viewer role has sub-roles as well. As soon as the user is engaged into that kind of social network, he can become a Loyal User by installing a special software on a desktop computer that is very similar to Moderators's software, but differs in a following way: viewer inputs Memo account identifier (which is a bitcoin address) into the software that only fetches and seeds the content that was liked by a user, completely in background. As the whole network state is a public information, each user can increase the level of loyalty by specifying the maximum 'dimension' of the content being fetched and seeded, where 1D is the content liked by initial viewer, 2D is the content liked by initial viewer and accounts followed by initial viewer and so on, up until around 6D, where mostly anything that was liked is stored within individual's storage threshold. Loyal Viewers can adopt different policies to restrict the content being fetched and seeded by blacklisting or prioritising certain hashtags, adopting some third-party priority/black lists, as well as specifying storage threshold. Contented that is stored by Loyal Users can be imagined as persisted in networks ‘long-term’ memory. The more Loyal Users are engaged in a network, and the more likes certain content has, the longer it will be stored.
It's worth noting that centralised torrent trackers are not points of failure per se as they are mostly used to pass the content from initial [browser] seeders to moderators. As soon as the content is approved by at least one moderator it can be listed on different trackers operated by different entities, and there can be a rotation of trackers if necessary. That said, each moderator can always re-register all of the content in possession on a new tracker, and the tracker can be adopted by web op_return feed providers. Moreover, the ongoing evolution of browser standards related to web-workers will make in-browser dht lookup a reality in a 2-3 years, which is likely a reasonable window to bootstrap such a network. OP can use some trackers only known among neighbours in particular area.
The layer is vulnerable to a situation where trackers blacklist certain content, and such content can be accessed by using a different op_return feed provider with different trackers, or a native app that will be able to fetch content seeders from the dht. Networks such as i2p can be used to create deep media layers operated anonymously. Also, as Tor is adopted by mainstream browsers (e.g. Brave) Viewers can access trackers through Tor, and such trackers are more resilient. These viewers will be unable to seed, however.
The layer is capable of storing any kind of content, but during bootstrap phase it will be most suitable for images, short video/audio messages, markdown formatted blogposts with embedded media. Each Moderator / Loyal Viewer can adopt different policies related to the size of the content being fetched and stored according to investments into storage facilities. If the proposed idea works, there will be parties willing to store some heavyweight content such as movies. If the layer is accessed from within a native app, it's even capable of livestreams, where the more users are watching a stream the more bandwidth there is for others to join, completely without any centralised content distribution networks.
As outlined above, the layer consist of short-term memory layer capable of storing content for minutes-days, and long-term memory layer capable of storing content for months and probably years. I use biological metaphors here instead of computer science ones as in my opinion the behaviour of this media layer resembles human memory more than computer memory, as ultimately it's a collective human brain decides what to remember and for how long. There is no guarantee that something will be stored at all, and at the same time some kind of content that's collectively perceived as valuable can be stored for a prolonged period of time.
Few words in regard to monetisation. Some heavily engaged players can choose to archive old content and provide access in trade for some micropayments. I see like the Joystream protocol can be used here with little changes such as adoption of webrtc transport protocol. Some different monetisation strategies can be discussed later as microtransaction technologies are more mature and well understood.
I am willing to form a workgroup of developers and creative enthusiasts who find the described idea interesting. I have been thinking about a possible starting point, so I have acquired the BlockPress source code with intention to distribute it in open source. We postponed the announcement a bit as the process of open-source release always takes time. BlockPress is an alternative Memo protocol implementation with a rather slick UI that's familiar to non tech savvy users - the quality I find extremely important. I think this can be a good starting point. If you think so as well, feel free to drop me a telegram message @taowanzou or [proton mail](mailto:[email protected]). Follow me on memo as well!
Sorry for any possible mistakes as English is not my primary language. And thanks for you time reading this!
submitted by taowanzou to btc [link] [comments]

List of qualities needed to dethrone Bitcoin.

Skycoin is 51% attack proof and addresses many of the security issues in Bitcoin. Skycoin is designed to be a simpler, easier to use, more secure Bitcoin. Skycoin emphasizes simplicity, security and usability.
submitted by BobUltra to CryptoTechnology [link] [comments]

Looking for BCH testnet API

Hi everyone,

I'm trying to find a publicly accessible Bitcoin Cash testnet API that doesn't require an account or at the very least doesn't need my private keys, and supports both address balance lookups and posting of raw transactions. I'm using Bitcoin ABC to support this functionality locally but I also need to be able to do this through a remote RPC API (preferably JSON-based).

Here's a quick rundown of where I've looked so far:

https://rest.bitcoin.com/
This seems like the most obvious option and supports the functionality I'm looking for but it appears that it's only for livenet. For example, here's a testnet address with a little over 0.5 tBCH:
https://explorer.bitcoin.com/tbch/address/n22LEtuzgniSXeMBoUjgpqkDm6Nf7SEMi4
...the API call, however, doesn't like this address:
https://rest.bitcoin.com/v2/address/details/bchtest:qrs0pew4sa7qtdz36jwc5rlwlmsfrlhqxuawvcfxsl
{"error":"Invalid network. Trying to use a testnet address on mainnet, or vice versa."}
Maybe there's another API endpoint I should be using here? Unfortunately I'm not seeing it in the documentation.

https://blockdozer.com/

The API documentation doesn't appear to include posting of transactions, raw or otherwise, and the Broadcast Raw Transaction page appears to be for Bitcoin only.

https://dev.btc.com/docs/js

This API appears to require the BlockTrail SDK and the "Sending Transactions" section seems to indicate that it uses a custodial/shared account model: "The SDK handles all the logic of creating the transaction, signing it with your primary key and sending it to the API so BTC.com can co-sign the transaction and send it to the bitcoin network."
Although I understand that it's not the same thing, to me this isn't too far from requiring my private keys (i.e. it's a loss of signing control).

https://www.bitgo.com/api/v2/

This API supports tBCH but uses hosted wallets (i.e. requires an account and private key[s]).

https://blockchair.com/

The API documentation has a section on broadcasting transactions but only lists bitcoin, bitcoin-cash, ethereum, and litecoin as available chains.

https://docs.cryptoapis.io/

Requires an account (API key) but appears to support the tBCH functionality I'm looking for. It's on the back-burner if I can't find anything else.

https://www.blockchain.com/api/blockchain_wallet_api

It looks like this API requires the developer to create and host a wallet with them in order to send transactions. I'm not sure if I'd have any control over the private key(s) here.

https://bitpay.com/api

Appears to require an account and doesn't appear to fully support the functionality I'm looking for.

If I've missed anything or I'm mistaken about what I've looked into I would very much appreciate your feedback! More importantly, if you know of a service that I haven't listed and that can do what I need it to do I thank you in advance for sharing it.
submitted by monican_agent to Bitcoincash [link] [comments]

ShionCoin Console Basics

The following is a brief overview of the commands provided by the "shc" utility console program.
The utility program "shc" communication with the server (shcoind) are restricted to the local host that the service is running. You must use the stratum API in order to access the server from a remote machine.
A sub-set of all the commands are provided here. This guide attempts to concentrate on commonly used commands that are useful. Run "shc help" for a full list of commands. Run "shc help " for details about running that particular command.
You can enter an interactive mode by running "shc --prompt".
Run the daemon with "shcoind --debug" in order to print additional information to the log file (on linux, "/valib/share/shcoind.log") for diagnostic purposes.
ShionCoin "pub-key" coin addresses typically starts with "S" or "R". A "script address" will start with "1" and a seg-wit address will start with "3". Coin addresses are verified when entered on the command-line in order to ensure that the address is prudent in respect to the coin interface.
All fees for extended transactions, such as creating context and aliases, are either stored (for update purposes) in a local extended account and/or are provided as mining fees. You can use the "wallet.donate" command to intentionally create a transaction which includes a specified mining reward value.

Wallet Commands

The wallet commands provides capabilities to transfer funds and manage accounts. Each account can contain several coin addresses and has a counter-part "extended account" that is not visible.
Wallet Info: wallet.info
Display statistical and runtime information on wallet operations.
shc wallet.info { "version": 3010000, "walletversion": 60000, "balance": 658, "keypoololdest": 1517000561, "keypoolsize": 101 }
Create Coin Address: wallet.new
The "wallet.new" command is used to create a normal (non seg-wit) coin address and associate it with an account name. Coin addresses may be automatically generated for accounts, for example in order to return "change" in a fund transfer transaction. All change is directly returned to the associated account.
shc wallet.new test S2fzfzf1SStvaMzjGpCtYKxY3t8PXus9Ci
List Accounts: wallet.list
The "wallet.list" command provides a balance of all accounts in the coin wallet.
shc wallet.list { "": 0, "bank": 658, "system": 0 }
Three accounts are created by default. The "" account receives coinbase rewards which are then distributed to users based on their stratum stats. The "bank" account is a 0.1% cut of the rewards received from the stratum mining pool. The "system" account is currently reserved for a cpu-miner which attempts a single mining operation each time new task work is assigned to miners. The frequency of how often this occurs is based on tracking the "luck" of past attempts.
List Coin Addresses: wallet.listaddr
The "wallet.listaddr" command will list all of the coin addresses associated with an account.
shc wallet.listaddr test ["S2fzfzf1SStvaMzjGpCtYKxY3t8PXus9Ci"]
Create Transaction: wallet.send
The "wallet.send" command is the primary method of sending funds.
All ShionCoin transactions are sent with at least the 0.0001 SHC minimum fee. Providing the minimum fee is provided, any fee can is permitted and affects the priority of the transaction.
shc wallet.send bank S2fzfzf1SStvaMzjGpCtYKxY3t8PXus9Ci 10 307711dace8c0583b744af8acd1df2073e36b0c7a54b8830a15ae146f8c22ddb
Test Create Transaction: wallet.tsend
You can "test send" a transaction in order to determine the aproximate fee and size that would result.
shc wallet.tsend bank SLbnKamvSx8FhaBNpHUwffFDLZ16J8phdX 10 { "amount": 10, "tx-amount": 98.999900, "size": 300, "virt-size": 226, "fee": 0.000100, "inputs": 1, "priority": 1085539000000 }
Create Batch Transaction(s): wallet.bsend
The "wallet.bsend" command allows you to transfer funds that are more complicated than would be permitted in a single transaction. Multiple transactions will be created, as neccessary, in order to send the specified coin value. The total value commited to be sent may be lower than the value requested under certain circumstances.
Create Certified Transaction: wallet.csend
The "wallet.csend" associated a pre-created certificate with the coin transfer. The certificate may be used to associate with the certificate, or provide a method to identity the source of the funds.
shc wallet.csend bank SLbnKamvSx8FhaBNpHUwffFDLZ16J8phdX 10
Create Stamp Transaction: wallet.stamp
The "wallet.stamp" command allows you to create a short message (up to 135 characters), or reference a geodetic location, to associate with a local coin address. The stamp transaction is the exclusive method of claiming spring matix location coins. Creating a stamp in the format "geo:," will result in a single SHC coin, once processed on the network, being rewarded for all locations not yet discovered in the spring matrix. A minimum transaction fee (0.0001) is applied for each stamp transaction created.
Use the "ctx.findloc" command in order to search for locations active in the sprint matrix.
Validate Address: wallet.donate
Donated coins are added to the upcoming block reward. Donations may be optionally associated with a certificate. The maximum donation value in a single transaction is 500 coins. Donations are associated with the coin address that generates them, and may contain a geodetic stamp depending on configuration and availability.
The total cost will include the donation coin value specified plus a minimum transaction fee (0.0001 SHC).
{ "version": 1, "flag": 1025, "txid": "ace04609d0eca593b73a3f1afb1dcfeb10049c4ab4098ff9b17e01da65bf2ec6", .. "ident": { "version": 3, "expire": " ", "geo": "46.770000,113.980000", "addr": "SFrXpo9ykcSeycTdMaFu3xWwJFxN5gkUH4" } }
Validate Address: wallet.validate
The "wallet.validate" command returns general information about the coin address specified, including whether the coin address is contained in the local wallet.
shc wallet.validate SLbnKamvSx8FhaBNpHUwffFDLZ16J8phdX { "isvalid": true, "address": "SLbnKamvSx8FhaBNpHUwffFDLZ16J8phdX", "ismine": true, "account": "system" }
Validate Address: wallet.key
Obtain a code that identifies the private key of a coin address.
Validate Address: wallet.setkey
Create a new coin address, for the specified account, with a private key code.
Validate Address: wallet.keyphrase
Obtain a set of phrases that identify the private key associated with a coin address.
Validate Address: wallet.setkeyphrase
Create a coin address in the wallet given a key phrase.
Export Wallet (json): wallet.export
Creates a JSON formatted backup of all the accounts managed.
Export Wallet (datafile): wallet.exportdat
Creates a binary backup, in the tradition bitcoin wallet format, of all the accounts in the wallet.
Import Wallet (json): wallet.import
Creates a JSON formatted backup of all the accounts managed.
Scan Wallet: wallet.rescan
Cycle through all known wallet transactions and verify their state in the block-chain.

Block Commands

BlockChain Info: block.info
Print summarized information about the block-chain.
shc block.info { "version": 2000000, "blockversion": 2, "walletversion": 60000, "blocks": 77029, "difficulty": 0.000488, "pooledtx": 0, "currentblockhash": "5c4e3a637d857c7df925dda1c017dd3864c0fb95c1421276619810f5b95fc8c5", "errors": "" }
Print Block (hash): block.get
Print detailed information about the specified block hash.
shc block.get bc157eefd48e18152c70ad2937bd44e6bb38d218bf13c262a844a3d0ae9264d6 { "blockhash": "bc157eefd48e18152c70ad2937bd44e6bb38d218bf13c262a844a3d0ae9264d6", "version": 536870912, "merkleroot": "5bda555d945bc36806f1eb4913a47a2ecad4569133cce1d59bd82ad94e7be1c6", "time": 1521898215, "stamp": "03/24/18 07:30:15", "nonce": 4422421, "bits": "1e07ffff", "previousblockhash": "3312abddb29aea55f44a0e3c52d397d3041b9e2deaa160f2ac415cdca05057b9", .. }
Print Block Hash (height): block.hash
Obtain the block hash for a specified block height.
shc block.hash 77022 bc157eefd48e18152c70ad2937bd44e6bb38d218bf13c262a844a3d0ae9264d6
Export BlockChain: block.export
Export an entire block-chain to a binary file. The actual export of data is performed asynchronously (in the background), and the log file should be reviewed to determine when the operation is actually done.
shc block.export /root/.shc/block.bin { "mode": "export-block", "minheight": 0, "maxheight": 0, "path": "/root/.shc/block.bin", "state": "init" }
tail /valog/share/shcoind.log ..
[03/24/18 07:47:14] info: shc: PerformBlockChainOperation: saved 77105 blocks to path "/root/.shc/block.bin".
Import BlockChain: block.import
Import a previously exported block-chain into the live system. The imported file will only over-write block records that do not previously exist.
BlockChain Scan: block.verify
Perform an integrity check against the last X blocks in the block-chain.

Transaction Commands

Print Transaction: tx.get
Print details for a particular transaction from it's transaction hash.
shc tx.get 307711dace8c0583b744af8acd1df2073e36b0c7a54b8830a15ae146f8c22ddb { "version": 1, "flag": 1, "txid": "307711dace8c0583b744af8acd1df2073e36b0c7a54b8830a15ae146f8c22ddb", .. }
Print Transaction: tx.pool
Print details for all transaction currently pending in the active "mempool" queue. These are transactions that are actively being inserted into mined blocks.
Print Transaction: tx.validate
Validate a transaction hash associated with the local wallet. Prints summarized information about all local coin addresses associated with the transaction.
shc tx.validate 307711dace8c0583b744af8acd1df2073e36b0c7a54b8830a15ae146f8c22ddb [{ "spent": "false", "ismine": "true", "address": "S7viXBKwUZKy4aPCby3oXzWFDxhZKjGipA" }, { "spent": "false", "ismine": "true", "address": "S2fzfzf1SStvaMzjGpCtYKxY3t8PXus9Ci" }]

Peer Commands

Import Peers: peer.info
Display a summary of information relating to connected peers.
{ "clientversion": 3010000, "protocolversion": 2000000, "socketport": 24104, "connections": 3, "networkhashps": 11609, "errors": "" }
Import Peers: peer.list
Display information about each node peer currently connected to the coin interface.
Export Peers: peer.export
Export all of the known peers to a JSON file.
shc peer.export /root/.shc/peer.json { "mode": "peer.export", "path": "/root/.shc/peer.json", "state": "finished" }
Import Peers: peer.add
Import a JSON file containing node peer information.
Remove Peer: peer.remove
Disconnect and remove the specified peer from the system.

Context Commands

Context Info: ctx.info
Print the current fee to create a context transaction and the total number of context records in the system.
{ "fee": 25, "total": 1 }
Print String Context: ctx.getstr
Prints the ASCII value associated with a particular context name.
shc ctx.getstr "test name" test value
Print Context: ctx.get
Prints detailed information about a context record given it's context hash.
shc ctx.get ab5b128ce3674f81f0271efbbbb191fed56e9a80 { "version": 3, "label": "ab5b128ce3674f81f0271efbbbb191fed56e9a80 test name (1zgfTHd5BQA)", "expire": "Mar 23 08:28:39 2020", "flags": 10244, "signature": "e0539d3ecb54c5c0a29ccd69f0b03dfdfb58bc24", "hash": "ab5b128ce3674f81f0271efbbbb191fed56e9a80", "valuesize": 10, "valuecrc": "1zgfTHd5BQA", "tx": "0dbf21191091e33ad7be3b1ce1983ffffdbedeb804e3ce934021f0fad038d50e" }
Create String Context: ctx.findloc
Search for a location by it's name or with geodetic cordinates.
The "ctx.findloc" will scan an area and attempt to find a location within it. This area includes a span of about 100 sq. miles. The closest location with the smallest precision found will be returned. In addition, geodetic information provided by the share library is also utilized.
shc ctx.findloc "geo:46.9,114.2" { "name": "missoula, mt", "summary": "Montana", "zone": "America/Denver", "code": "MUNI", "country": "US", "geo": "46.94000,114.04000", "type": "Municipal Zone", "springable": "false" } shc ctx.findloc "Missoula, MT" { "name": "missoula, mt", "summary": "Montana", "zone": "America/Denver", "code": "MUNI", "country": "US", "geo": "46.94000,114.04000", "type": "Municipal Zone", "springable": "false" }
Note: The "springable" value denotes whether the geodetic location can be claimed in the SHC spring matrix (see "wallet.stamp").
Create String Context: ctx.getloc
Print detailed information about a particular location by it's name or geodetic cordinates.
The "ctx.getloc" command requires specific cordinates to be specified when a latitude and longitude is specified.
ctx.getloc "Missoula Creek" ctx.getloc geo:46.9846,114.1213
Note: The "springable" value denotes whether the geodetic location can be claimed in the SHC spring matrix (see "wallet.stamp").
Create String Context: ctx.setstr
Create a text format context value. This establishes a simple name=value relationship.
Context names are stored as hash keys. Therefore, the string name of the context key must be known before-hand in order to perform the lookup. A small label is also provided as part of the context record which includes a snippet (or all of) the context name.
Context records are signed against the coin address that paid to generate the transaction. Context transaction typically cost about 25 SHC or less to create. A context will expire two years after the date at which it is either created or updated. The owner can update a context by creating a new one with the same name as a pre-existing one. The "context hash" that identifies a context is also the key hash of it's label. The context is shown as part of the transaction details.
shc ctx.setstr test "test name" "test value" { "version": 3, "label": "ab5b128ce3674f81f0271efbbbb191fed56e9a80 test name (1zgfTHd5BQA)", "expire": "Mar 23 08:28:39 2020", "flags": 10244, "signature": "e0539d3ecb54c5c0a29ccd69f0b03dfdfb58bc24", "hash": "ab5b128ce3674f81f0271efbbbb191fed56e9a80", "valuesize": 10, "valuecrc": "1zgfTHd5BQA", "tx": "0dbf21191091e33ad7be3b1ce1983ffffdbedeb804e3ce934021f0fad038d50e" }
Create Geodetic Context: ctx.setloc
The "ctx.setloc" command creates contextual information about a specific place.
The command includes information about a location zipcode, name, and description. In addition, an optional place type code, country code, and web-url can be specified.
The place type corrosponds to one of the codes returned from the "ctx.loctypes" command.
This command has two different modes. One corrosponds to giving a name to a particular geodetic latitude and longitude corindate, and the other includes providing details about that particular location. A single location (as specified by latitude and longitude) may have multiple names, but it limited to a single set of details. Although some common places may be reserved from use (such as common city names), the application of detailed information to a geodetic location comes on a first-come-first-serve basis. Note that context information expires after two years.
The size of the area being referenced is dependent on the place type specified. For example, "AREA" spans roughly 30 sq. miles, while "SPOT" only spans 8 sq. feet. This precision is used in relation to geodetic lookups performed.
shc ctx.setloc test geo:46.9846,114.1213 "Bitterroot Creek" STM US shc ctx.setloc test "Missoula Creek" geo:46.9846,114.1213
Create Identity Context: ctx.setid
Create a binary context from the raw command-line argument specified.
Create Binary Context (raw): ctx.setbin
Create a binary context from the raw command-line argument specified.
Create Binary Context (file): ctx.setfile
Create a binary context from the absolute path specified.
Print Location Types: ctx.loctypes
Print out all suported location type codes for use with the "ctx.setloc" command.
[{ "name": "AREA", "desc": "General Area", "prec": 1 }, { "name": "MT", "desc": "Mountain", "prec": 1 }, .. }

Address Alias Commands

Alias Info: alias.info
Print the current fee to create an alias transaction and the total number of alias records in the system.
shc alias.info { "fee": 31.250000, "total": 1 }
Create Address Alias: alias.pubaddr
Create a persistent public association with a name and a coin address. Once confirmed, the coin address can be referenced as "@" in command-line operations.
When a coin address is specified the alias label will be published onto the block chain in reference. If the alias label already exists, then a transfer will occur providing you are the original owner.
A coin address will be automatically created if none is specified. Only "pub-key" coin addresses are currently supported. An alias will expire after 12 years.
An alias cost around 30 SHC to create and will decrease over time.
shc alias.pubaddr test S2fzfzf1SStvaMzjGpCtYKxY3t8PXus9Ci { .. "alias": { "version": 1, "label": "test", "expire": "Mar 21 09:37:40 2030", "type": 30, "addr": "S2fzfzf1SStvaMzjGpCtYKxY3t8PXus9Ci", "type-name": "pubkey" } }
shc wallet.send bank @test 2 d438fea502b7113f155617fc1b400161bb3045645094df5423ce7e484fadf7f2
List Address Alias: alias.list
Print all aliases that match the keyword provided.
shc alias.list { "test": { "block": "79b04f63fe5602f40bc559b1c5b39b730a2d6ea2d6b4ab491904d6054b1add71", "tx": "abb12ed2f4a74c58432afa9e19c08afad1d3dd84052f23be534e96ed53e11d4f", "alias": "77135966b271a06928cdff5548dbbaed61ee7250", "addr": "S2fzfzf1SStvaMzjGpCtYKxY3t8PXus9Ci" } }
Print Address Alias: alias.getaddr
Print details about a particular coin address alias given it's name.
shc alias.getaddr test { "version": 1, "label": "test", "expire": "Mar 21 09:37:40 2030", "type": 30, "addr": "S2fzfzf1SStvaMzjGpCtYKxY3t8PXus9Ci", "type-name": "pubkey" }

Certificate Commands

Certificate Info: cert.info
Prints the current certificate transaction fee and the total number of certificates created on the block-chain.
shc cert.info { "fee": 14.750000, "total": 1 }
Certificate Info: cert.list
Search for a certificate given the provided keyword.
shc cert.list test { "test certificate": "8069f1bbfb435cfa1efdb454684446528343b809" }
Certificate Info: cert.new
The "cert.new" command is used to create a new certificate on the block-chain. The certificate than may be used to derive other certificates or dispense licences. The certificate may have an optional fee specified that will be required to derive or license it.
A certificate can either be designated for issueing other certificates or granting licenses, but not both. Either form of the certificate may be used in order to donate or send a certified coin transfer.
A certificate is signed against a private key that is generated from the associated extended account coin address. You may optionally specify a hexadecimal seed to use for generating the private key. The certificate's private key is not stored in a database or a transaction, and requires the original coin address to be present in the local wallet to be determined. The public key is provided as part of the certificate transaction, and can be used in order to verify the integrity of the associated signature.
The average fee for registering a new certificate is initially about 15 SHC and will decrease over time. The details of the certificate are visible in the underlying transaction that it was generated in.
The frame-work of the certificate is designed to be compatible with the x509 format. See the "shcert" share library utility program for more information on exporting x509 certificate created on the ShionCoin block-chain. Certificates may also be used to provide licensing authentication to run or provide features to programs using the share library "esig" functionality (see the "shesig_verify()" function).
Note that the certificate may contain identifying information such as the originating coin address and, when available, the geodetic location.
shc cert.new test "test certificate" { "version": 1, "flag": 17, "txid": "18d0a73c96af3dd211f27e4ada898e13b4cf25223da2591289edb8a1e86f1129", .. "certificate": { "version": 3, "label": "test certificate", "expire": "Mar 24 04:13:46 2066", "geo": "46.770000,113.980000", "addr": "SC2j6kxbrKzfpxsGqBQSrxeDh2CdPn1TLJ", "certhash": "8069f1bbfb435cfa1efdb454684446528343b809", "issuer": "0000000000000000000000000000000000000000", "serialno": "0c96a132d74df2522f38babf0733224c", "flags": 10244, "signature": "0d5a4e6c7d4975ee443cfc2e057d3d76070bd2f5", "sigpubkey": "0334d9f89253fa0837a1524266414509bdce478368" } }
Certificate Info: cert.get
Print the details of a certificate record given the certificate hash.
{ "version": 3, "label": "test certificate", "expire": "Mar 24 04:13:46 2066", "geo": "46.770000,113.980000", "addr": "SC2j6kxbrKzfpxsGqBQSrxeDh2CdPn1TLJ", "certhash": "8069f1bbfb435cfa1efdb454684446528343b809", "issuer": "0000000000000000000000000000000000000000", "serialno": "0c96a132d74df2522f38babf0733224c", "flags": 10244, "signature": "0d5a4e6c7d4975ee443cfc2e057d3d76070bd2f5", "sigpubkey": "0334d9f89253fa0837a1524266414509bdce478368", "txid": "18d0a73c96af3dd211f27e4ada898e13b4cf25223da2591289edb8a1e86f1129" }
Certificate Info: cert.derive
Derive a certificate from another certificate. You can optionally specify a fee to be associated with the new certificate, and a fee may be required if one is associated with the parent certificate.
Certificate Info: cert.license
Generate a license from a certificate. A license represents authorization to use a particular product and typically requires a fee to be paid. You can optionally specify a hexadecimal seed to be used when creating the certificate's private key.
Certificate Info: cert.export
Exports the private key information from the extended account that is used to claim ownership over a particular certificate.
Ownership and management of a certificate depends on having specific coin address key(s) in the coin wallet. Exporting a certificate provides JSON formatted content which can be used with "wallet.import" command to attain ownership of a certificate.
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